IAU Transactions XVIB

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(the following is excerpted from the book published by D. Reidel, 1977)


Edited by
EDITH A. MÜLLER, General Secretary of the Union
ARNOST JAPPEL, Executive Secretary

from p. 321


PRESIDENT: P. M. Millman

At the XV General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union in Sydney, Australia, August 21-30, 1973, a new working group was formed, the Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (IAU/WGPSN). Unlike most other working groups in the IAU the WGPSN does not report through any commission, or group of commissions, but is responsible only to the Executive Committee of the IAU, and reports directly to this Committee. The WGPSN is charged with formulating and coordinating all topographic nomenclature on the planetary bodies of the solar system and has certain powers of action in the interval between General Assemblies. The establishment of the WGPSN was found advisable because of the recent rapid advance in our knowledge of the topography of the surfaces of planetary bodies, and the necessity of coordinating the approved systems of nomenclature among the different planets and their satellites.

In the period 1973-1976 the WGPSN held three meetings as follows:

First Meeting - Ottawa, Canada, June 27 and 28, 1974; Second Meeting - Moscow, USSR, July 14 and 18, 1975; Third Meeting - Grenoble, France, August 30 and 31, 1976.

The following members of the IAU have served on the WGPSN in the interval noted:

A. Dollfus D. Morrison
B.Ju. Levin T.C. Owen
C.H. Mayer G.H. Pettengill
D.H. Menzel S.K. Runcorn
P.M. Millman B.A. Smith

In addition to those listed above, the following have been members of the various nomenclature task groups, responsible for compiling the detailed material to be presented to the WGPSN:

K. Aksnes I.K. Koval
M.S. Bobrov A.D. Kuz'min
C.R. Chapman Yu.N. Lipskij
M.E. Davies M.Ya. Marov
F. El-Baz H. Masursky
K.P. Florenskij S. Miyamoto
D. Gautier A.V. Morozhenko
O.J. Gingerich C. Sagan
R.M. Goldstein V.V. Shevchenko
J.E. Guest V.G. Tejfel'

The nomenclature resolutions passed by the WGPSN, and later approved by the International Astronomical Union, are listed in the following pages.

from p. 322

First Meeting

Resolutions from the First Meeting of the I.A.U. Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature, Ottawa, Ontario, June 27 and 28, 1974.

Resolution I


(a) Nomenclature is a tool and the first consideration shall be to make it simple, clear and unambiguous.

(b) The number of names chosen for each body should be kept to a minimum, and governed by the anticipated requirements of the scientific community.

(c) Although there will be exceptions, duplication of the same name on two or more bodies should be avoided.

(d) In general, individual names chosen should be single words, and expressed in the language of origin. Transliteration and pronunciation for various alphabets should be given, but there will be no translation from one language to another.

(e) Where possible, consideration should also be given to the traditional aspects of any nomenclature system, provided that this does not cause confusion.

(f) Solar system nomenclature shall be international in its choice of names. Recommendations submitted by I.A.U. National Committees will be considered. Final approval of any selection is the responsibility of the International Astronomical Union.

(g) We must look to the future in general discussions of solar system nomenclature and attempt to lay the groundwork for future requirements that will result from the development of the space program.

Resolution II


The following Latin terms, already approved for use on the moon or Mars, are suitable for use with a nomenclature system on any planet or satellite in the solar system (plurals are given in brackets):

Latin Term Approximate Description

(a) CATENA (Catenae) a chain or line of craters
(b) CHASMA (Chasmata) a deep, elongated, steep-sided depression
(c) CRATER (Crateres) an essentially circular depression
(d) DORSUM (Dorsa) a ridge
(e) FOSSA (Fossae) a long, narrow, shallow depression
(f) LABYRINTHUS (Labyrinthi) a complex of intersecting narrow depressions
(g) MENSA (Mensae) a flat-topped prominence with cliff-like edges
(h) MONS (Montes) a mountain
(i) PATERA (Paterae) an irregular crater, or a complex one with scalloped edges
(j) PLANITIA (Planitiae) a plain
(k) PLANUM (Plana) a plateau
(1) RIMA (Rimae) a fissure
(m) RUPES (Rupes) a scarp

from p. 323

(n) THOLUS (Tholi) a hill
(o) VALLIS (Valles) a valley
(p) VASTITAS (Vastitates) an extensive plain

When required, additional Latin terms may be added to this list, but it is recommended that the number of terms used be kept to a minimum. The following terms, already in use on the moon, should be discussed in each case before being used on other planetary bodies:

(q) LACUS (Lacus)
(r) MARE (Maria)
(s) PALUS (Paludes)
(t) PROMONTORIUM (Promontoria)
(u) SINUS (Sinus)

Resolution III


Traditionally, the names of distinguished, deceased scientists have generally been used to name craters on the moon and Mars. Although this source can still be used it is obvious, when we examine the future requirements of planetary system nomenclature, and particularly for the case of the other planets and satellites, that we should consider the possibility of using additional name categories.

Recommendations concerning the name categories for any planet and its satellites shall be approved by the Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature before the individual names are assigned by the Task Group concerned. Task groups shall operate in compliance with Resolution I. It is agreed to prohibit the assignment of names of individuals known primarily
- as religious figures;
- as military leaders, political leaders, and philosophers of the 19th and 20th centuries.

Some examples of name categories that can, without difficulty, provide several hundred names, and in some cases considerably more, are:

(a) distinguished, deceased - artists (painters)
(b) distinguished, deceased - muscians
(c) distinguished, deceased - sculptors
(d) distinguished, deceased - writers and poets
Where names of specific individuals are used the dates of birth and death, and very brief biographical details, should be published.
(e) animals
(f) birds
(g) cities
(h) first names of men and women
(i) islands
(j) lakes
(k) minerals
(l) mountains
(m) rivers
(n) villages

Some examples of name categories capable of providing less than one hundred names are:

(o) deserts
(p) fundamental particles
(q) geographical provinces
(r) observatories
(s) scientific instruments
(t) ships of discovery
(u) the name of the particular planet or satellite in various languages

The preceding lists should in no way be considered restrictive.

from p. 324

Eventually, we may have to consider the surface nomenclature for a total of more than thirty different planetary bodies. Hence, the choice of name categories should be made with this in mind.

Resolution IV


The development of lists of names for various bodies in the solar system is an important but time-consuming task that must involve a cooperative effort by representatives of several countries. To avoid decisions hastily made to satisfy contractual deadlines or mission constraints, it is essential that the nomenclature task groups be made aware of these requirements well in advance.

We therefore request the Executive Committee of the I.A.U. to notify those organizations that may be responsible for production of maps of solar-system bodies (e.g. NASA), asking them to inform the IAU/WGPSN of any plans for mapping that will involve deadlines for the availability of names. The IAU/WGPSN should also receive advance notice of any missions that may involve landing sites or areas of reconnaissance requiring special nomenclature.

Resolution V


Working Group meetings and Task Group meetings should be scheduled at least six months in advance, if at all possible. When convenient, such meetings might be scheduled in conjunction with international meetings which a majority of members are likely to attend.

Resolution VI


Task-group members unable to attend meetings shall be contacted by the Chairman regarding concurrence in the choice of names. Adequate documentation shall be provided. Lack of response within 45 days (allowed for two-way mail or wire service) shall be regarded as concurrence.

Resolution VII


Until the next meeting of the IAU/WGPSN, approximately one year from June, 1974, names of non-scientists shall not be chosen for lunar maps.


from p. 324

Second Meeting

Resolutions from the Second Meeting of the I.A.U. Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature, Moscow, USSR, July 14 and 18, 1975.

Resolution I


1. (a) For sheets of the 1:250,000 lunar map series we recommend that where old lettered crater names (Mädler system names) are replaced by approved new names, the old names be printed on the map in brackets under the new names.

(b) For Edition 3 of the 1:5,000,000 lunar map series we recommend retention of all the lettered crater names now present on Edition 2. Where these lettered craters have been assigned approved new names the old name will be shown in brackets on the map under the new name.

2. For the 1:1,000,000 lunar map series (LAC) we recommend the following sheet names:-

p. 326

LAC No. Name

1 Peary
2 Carpenter
3 Anaxagoras
4 Meton
5 Petermann
6 Schwarzschild
7 Karpinskij
8 Kirkwood
9 Brianchon
10 Pythagoras

11 J. Herschel
12 Plato
13 Aristoteles
14 Endymion
15 Belkovich
16 Compton
17 Störmer
18 D'Alembert
19 Birkhoff
20 Coulomb

21 Omar Khayyam
22 Lavoisier
23 Rümker
24 Sinus Iridum
25 Cassini
26 Eudoxus
27 Geminus
28 Gauss
29 Fabry
30 Millikan

31 Campbell
32 Chandler
33 Schneller
34 Fowler
35 Landau
36 Lorentz
37 Russell
38 Seleucus
39 Aristarchus
40 Timocharis

41 Montes Apenninus
42 Mare Serenitatis
43 Macrobius
44 Cleomedes
45 Hubble
46 Joliot
47 Seyfert
48 Mare Moscoviense
49 Komarov
50 Fitzgerald

51 Cockcroft
52 Joule
53 Fersman
54 Robertson
55 Vasco da Gama
56 Hevelius
57 Kepler
58 Copernicus
59 Mare Vaporum
60 Julius Caesar

61 Taruntius
62 Mare Undarum
63 Neper
64 Babcock
65 Ostwald
66 Mendeleev
67 Mandel'shtam
68 Sharonov
69 Zhukovskij
70 Kibalchich

71 Michelson
72 Nobel
73 Riccioli
74 Grimaldi
75 Letronne
76 Montes Riphaeus
77 Ptolemaeus
78 Theophilus
79 Colombo
80 Langrenus

81 Ansgarius
82 Pasteur
83 Langemak
84 Dellinger
85 Keeler
86 Icarus
87 Korolev
88 Vavilov
89 Lucretius
90 Lowell

91 Eichstadt
92 Byrgius
93 Mare Humorum
94 Pitatus
95 Purbach
96 Rupes Altai
97 Fracastorius
98 Petavius
99 Humboldt
100 Hilbert

p. 327

101 Fermi
102 Gagarin
103 O'Day
104 Van de Graaff
105 Mohorovicic
106 Lodygin
107 Houzeau
108 Mare Orientale
109 Vallis Inghirami
110 Schickard

111 Wilhelm
112 Tycho
113 Maurolycus
114 Rheita
115 Furnerius
116 Mare Australe
117 Milne
118 Jules Verne
119 Mare Ingenii
120 Oppenheimer
121 Apollo
122 Brouwer
123 Rydberg
124 Phocylides
125 Schiller
126 Clavius
127 Hommel
128 Biela
129 Lyot
130 Fechner

131 Planck
132 Hess
133 Minkowski
134 Fizeau
135 Arrhenius
136 Bailly
137 Moretus
138 Manzinus
139 Helmholtz
140 Schrödinger

141 Minnaert
142 Zeeman
143 Hausen
144 Amundsen

3. We recommend the approval of the following list of crater names as assigned on the moon:

AL-KHWARIZMI 780-850? 7.0 N, 107.0 E Arab mathematician

ARTSIMOVICH (Lev A.) 1909-1973 27.5 N, 36.5 W
(replaces Diophantus A) Russian Physicist

AVERY (Oswald T.) 1877-1955 1.2 S, 81.3 E
(replaces Gilbert U) Canadian Biologist

BACK (Ernst E.A.) 1881-1959 1.2 N, 80.6 E
(replaces Schubert B) German physicist

BLACK (Joseph) 1728-1799 9.0 S, 80.4 E
(replaces Mstner F) French chemist

BOREL (Félix Edouard Emile) 1871-1956 22.7 N, 26.4 E
(replaces Le Monnier C) French mathematician

CAVENTOU (Joseph Bienaimé) 1795-1877 29.8 N, 29.3 W
(replaces La Hire D) French cehmist

DALE (Henry Hallett) 1875-1968 (Nobel, 1936) 9.4 S, 83.0 E English Physiologist

ELMER (Charles W.) 1872-1954 10.0 S, 84.2 E American amateur astronomer

ESCLANGON (Ernest B.) 1876-1954 21.5 N, 42.0 E
(replaces Macrobius L) French astronomer

p. 328

FREDHOLM (Erik Ivar) 1866-1927 18.5 N, 46.5 E
(replaces Macrobius D) Swedish mathematician

GARDNER (Irvine Clifton) 1889-1972 17.7 N, 33.7 E
(replaces Vitruvius A) American physicist

GAST (Paul W.) 1930-1973 Dorsum near 24 N, 9 E American geochemist

GOLGI (Camillo) 1843-1926 (Nobel, 1906) 27.8 N, 59.9 W
(replaces Schiaparelli D) Italian cytologist

GREAVES (William M.H.) 1897-1955 13.2 N, 52.6 E
(replaces Lick D) British astronomer

HELMERT (Friedrich Robert) 1843-1917 7.5 S, 87.7 E German geodicist-astronomer

ISAEV (Aleksej M.) 1908-1971 17.5 S, 147.5 E Russian rocket engineer

KROGH (Schack August Steenberg) 1874-1949 (Nobel, 1920) 9.7 N, 65.8 E
(replaces Auzout B) Danish physiologist

LANDSTEINER (Karl) 1868-1943 (Nobel, 1930) 31.2 N, 14.9 W
(replaces Timocharis F) Austrian/American pathologist

LEBESGUE (Henri Leon) 1875-1941 5.1 S, 89.0 E French mathematician

LIOUVILLE (Joseph) 1809-1882 4.2 N, 73.7 E French mathematician

McADIE (Alexander George) 1863-1943 2.0 N, 92.4 E American meteorologist

McDONALD (W. Johnson) 1844-1926 30.4 N, 21.0 W
(replaces Carlini B) American amateur astronomer

MORLEY (Edward Williams) 1838-1923 2.8 S, 64.6 E
(replaces MacLaurin R) American chemist

NECHO 610-593 B.C. 5.0 S, 123.0 E Egyptian geographer

POMORTSEV (Mikhail M.) 1851-1916 0.7 N, 67.0 E
(replaces Dubiago P) Russian rocket scientist

PUPIN (Michael I.) 1858-1935 23.8 N, 11.0 W
(replaces Timocharis K) Yugoslavian/American physicist

RAMAN (Chandrasekhara V.) 1888-1970 (Nobel, 1930) 27.0 N, 55.2 W
(replaces Herodotus D) Indian physicist

RESPIGHI (Lorenzo) 1824-1890 4.0 N, 72.0 E
(replaces Dubiago C) Italian astronomer

RUTHERFORD (Ernest) 1871-1937 (Nobel, 1908) 10.5 N, 137.0 E English physicist

SAMPSON (Ralph Allen) 1866-1939 29.7 N, 16.7 W British astronomer

SANTOS-DUMONT (Alberto) 1873-1932 27.7 N, 4.8 E
(replaces Hadley B) Brazilian pioneer in aeronautics

SCHEELE (Carl Wilhelm) 1742-1786 9.5 S, 38.0 W
(replaces Letronne D) Swedish chemist

p. 329

SHERRINGTON (Charles Scott) 1856-1952 (Novel, 1932) 11.0 S, 117.5 E English neurophysiologist

SLOCUM (Frederick) 1873-1944 3.0 S, 89.0 E American astronomer

STEWARD (John Quincy) 1894-1972 2.2 N, 67.0 E
(replaces Dubiago Q) American astronomer

SWASEY (Ambrose) 1846-1937 5.5 S, 89.7 E American inventor

SWIFT (Lewis) 1820-1913 19.0 N, 53.5 E
(replaces Peirce B) American astronomer

TALBOT (William Henry Fox) 1800-1877 2.3 S, 85.3 E English chemist

TOSCANELLI (Paolo dal Pozza) 1397-1482 27.9 N, 47.6 W
(replaces Aristarchus C) Italian physician, map-maker

TOWNLEY (Sidney Dean) 1867-1946 3.8 N, 63.2 E
(replaces Apollonius G) American astronomer

VAN ALBADA (Gale Bruno) 1912-1972 9.8 N, 64.5 E
(replaces Auzout A) Dutch astronomer

VAN VLECK (John Monroe) 1833-1912 W S, 78.2 E
(replaces Gilbert M) American mathematician, astronomer

WARNER (Worcester Reed) 1846-1929 3.9 C, 87.3 E American inventor

WEIERSTRASS (Karl Theodor W.) 1815-1897 0.9 S, 72.3 E
(replaces Gilbert N) German mathematician

ZASYADKO (Alexander D.) 1779-1837 3.8 N, 94.0 E Russian rocket scientist

4. We recommend the approval of the following list of first names of men and women for use as crater names in restricted areas of the moon:






p. 330

5. (a) We recommend that the following list of generic Latin terms be used henceforth in assigning names to non-crater features on the moon: *

Catena Mons Rupes Dorsum Planum Sinus Lacus Promentorium Tholus Mare Rima Vallis

(b) We recommend that the following generic Latin term be retained where presently assigned on the moon but not be used in the future assignment of names:


6. In three exceptional cases we recommend the adoption of the following names, already in use on the moon:

Reiner Gamma
Mons Hadley Delta Mons Maraldi Gamma


  • It was felt that for the terms Lacus, Mare, Planum, Promontorium, Sinus and Tholus, there should be a case by case discussion before using them with new names.

  1. It was recognized that the term Oceanus was suitable for use in its present application on the moon but that there was little likelihood of the need for this term in conjunction with new names.

p. 338

Action Following Second Meeting Resolution approved by the WGPSN in October, 1975.

Resolved that the large craters on Mercury be named after great contributors to the humanities and the arts; including (but not limited to): authors of drama, prose and poetry; painters; sculptors; architects; composers; and musicians.

Third Meeting

Resolutions from the Third Meeting of the I.A.U. Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature, Grenoble, France, August 30 and 31, 1976.

Resolution I


We recommend that:

1. All official actions on nomenclature, approved by the I.A.U. at a General Assembly, be printed in the Transactions of the I.A.U.

2. That there be produced, for wide distribution, a comprehensive publication including all planetary nomenclature resolutions and lists of names officially approved by the I.A.U. up to and including the XVI General Assembly; and that all future approved planetary nomenclature be published in supplementary volumes following each General Assembly.

Resolution 11


1. We recommend approval of the following list of 107 names of scientists and 13 Latin words as now assigned and printed on the 1:250,000 lunar map series and marked "provisional".

ABETTI (A.) 1846-1928 19.8 N, 27.7 E Italian astronomer
ACOSTA (C.) c.1525-c.1594 5.5 S, 60.0 E
(replaces Langrenus C) Spanish; natural history, medicine
AGRICOLA, MONTES (Georgius) 1494-1555 LAC 38 German earth scientist

p. 339

AL-BAKRI (A.A.) 1010-1094 14.5 N, 20.3 E
(replaces Tacquet A) Spanish/Arabian geographer
ALDROVANDI, DORSA (Ulisse) 1522-1605 LAC 42 Italian earth scientist
AL-MARRAKUSHI fl. 13th century 10.2 S, 55.8 E
(replaces Langrenus D) Muslim astronomer, mathematician
AL-TUSI fl. 13th century 7.0 N, 120.0 W Muslim astronomer, mathematician
AMEGHINO (F.) c. 1854-1911 3.4 N, 57.0 E
(replaces Apollonius C) Italian anthropologist
AMMONIUS c. 517-526 8.5 S, 0.8 W
(replaces Ptolemaeus A) Greek/Egyptian philosopher
AMONTONS (Guillaume) 1663-1705 5.2 S, 46.8 E French physicist
AMORIS, SINUS Latin name meaning love LAC
ANDRONOV (Aleksandr A.) 1901-1952 22.7 S, 146.0 E Russian physicist
ANDRUSOV, DORSA (Nicolai I.) 1861-1924 LAC 80 Czechoslovakian palaeontologist
ANVILLE (J.B.) 1697-1782 2.0 N, 49.5 E;
(replaces Taruntius G) French cartographer
ARDUINO, DORSUM (Giovanni) 1713-1795 LAC 39 Italian earth scientist
ARGAND, DORSA (Emile) 1879-1940 LAC 39 French earth scientist
ARMINSKI (Franciszek) 1789-1848 16.4 S, 154.1 E Polish astronomer
ASADA (G.) 1734-1799 7.5 N, 49.9 E
(replaces Taruntius A) Japanese astronomer
ASPERITATIS, SINUS Latin word meaning roughness LAC 78 (replaces Torricelli R and surrounding mare)
ATWOOD (G.) 1745-1807 5.7 S, 57.5 E
(replaces Langrenus K) English mathematician, physicist
AZARA, DORSUM (F, de) 17}~2-1811 LAC 42 Spanish earth scientist
BALANDIN (A.A.) 1898-1967 19.0 S, 152.5 E Russian chemist
BANCROFT (W.D.) 1867-1953 28.0 N, 6,5 W
(replaces Archimedes A) American chemist
BARLOW, DORSA (w.) 1845-1936 LAC 61 English earth scientist
BEKETOV (N.N.) 1827-1911 16.3 N, 29.2 E
(replaces Jansen C) Russian chemist
BENEDICT (F.G.) 1870-1957 4.7 N, 14l.7 E American chemist, physiologist

p. 340

BERGMAN (T.O.) 1735-1784 7.4 N, 137.5 E Swedish chemist, mineralogist, astronomer
BILHARZ (T.) 1825-1862 5.5 S, 56.2 E
(replaces Langrenus F) German anatomist, zoologist
BINGHAM (H.) 1875-1956 8.0 N, 115.0 E American explorer
BOBILLIER (E.) 1798-1840 19.5 N, 15.5 E
(replaces Bessel E) French geometrist, mechanics
BOETHIUS 480?-524 5.8 N, 72.3 E
(replaces Dubiago U) Greek physicist
BOMBELLI (R.) 1526-1572 5.8 N, 56.0 E
(replaces Apollonius T) Italian algebraist
BONITATIS, LACUS Latin name meaning goodness LAC 43
BOWDITCH (Nathaniel) 1773-1848 25.0 S, 103.0 E American navigator, astronomer, mathematician
BREWSTER (D.) 1781-1868 23.5 N, 34.7 E
(replaces Römer L) Scottish; optics
BUCHER, DORSUM (w.H.) 1889-1965 LAC 39 Swiss earth scientist
BUCKLAND, DORSUM (W.) 1784-1856 LAC 41,42 English earth scientist
BURNET, DORSA (Thomas) 1635-1715 LAC 38 English earth scientist
CARTAN (E.J.) 1869-1951 4.5 N, 59.3 E
(replaces Apollonius D) French mathematician
CATO, DORSA ('The Censor') 234 B.C. -149 B.C. LAC 61 Greek founder of geological engineering
CAYEUX, DORSUM (Lucien) 1864-1944 LAC 62 French sedimentary petrographer
CLOOS, DORSUM (Hans) 1885-1951 LAC 64 German earth scientist
CONCORDIAE, SINUS Latin name meaning harmony LAC 61
CONDON (Edward U.) 1902-1974 2.2 N, 60.3 E
(replaces Webb R) American physicist
VON COTTA, DORSUM (Carl B.) 1808-1879 LAC 42 German earth scientist
CRILE (G.) 1864-1943 14.5 N, 46.0 E
(replaces Proclus F) American surgeon
CTESIBIUS ca. 100 B.C. 1.5 N, 118.5 E Egyptian physicist
CUSHMAN, DORSUM (J.A.) 1881-1949 LAC 61 American micropaleontologist
DANA, DORSA (James D.) 1813-1895 LAC 64 American earth scientist

p. 341

D'ARSONVAL (Jacques Aresne) 1851-1940 10.0 S, 124.3 E French physicist
DOLORIS, LACUS Latin word meaning anguish LAC 41
EPPINGER (H.) 1879-1946 9.5 S, 25.8 W
(replaces Euclides D) Czechoslovakian physician
EWING, DORSA (W. Maurice) 1906-1974 LAC 75 American geophysicist
FABBRONI (Giovanni V.M.) 1752-1822 18.6 N, 29.3 E
(replaces Vitruvius E) Italian chemist
FAHRENHEIT (Gabriel Daniel) 1686-1736 13.3 N, 61.6 E
(replaces Picard X) Dutch physicist
FELICITATIS, LACUS Latin word meaning happiness LAC 41
FIDEI, SINUS Latin word meaning trust LAC 41
FINSCH (O.F.H.) 1839-1917 23.7 N, 20.7 E German zoologist
FISCHER (Emil) 1852-1919 8.2 N, 142.6 E German chemist (Nobel, 1902)

  • (Hans) 1881-1945 German organic chemist(Nobe1,1930)

GAUDII, LACUS Latin word meaning joy LAC 42
GEIKIE, DORSA (Archibald) 1835-1924 LAC 80 Scottish geologist
GEISSLER (Heinrich) 1814-1879 2.3 S, 76.5 E
(replaces Gilbert D) German physicist
GLAUBER (Johann Rudolph) 1603/4-1668/70 11.7 N, 142.8 E German chemist
GRABAU, DORSUM (Amadeus W.) 1870-1946 LAC 40 American earth scientist
GRAVE (Dmitriy A.) 1863-1939 17.0 S, 150.0 E Russian mathematician

  • (Ivan P.) 1874-1960 Russian; ballistics

GUETTARD, DORSUM (Jean-Etienne) 1715-1786 LAC 76 French earth scientist
HARDEN (Sir Arthur) 1865-1940 5.5 N, 143.7 E English chemist (Nobel, 1929)
HARKER, DORSA (Alfred) 1859-1939 LAC 62 English petrologist
HEIM, DORSUM (Albert) 1849-1937 LAC 40 Swiss earth scientist
HERON (also written Hero) Ca. 100 B.C. 1.0 N, 119.6 E Egyptian physicist
HIEMALIS, LACUS Latin word meaning winter LAC 60
(replaces Menelaus R)
HIGAZY, DORSUM (Riad) 1919-1967 LAC 40 Arab earth scientist

p. 342

HONORIS, SINUS Latin word meaning honor LAC 60
HUME (David) 1711-1776 4.5 S, 90.5 Scottish historian and philosopher
IBN BATTUTA c.1300-c.1368/9 7.0 S, 50.5 E
(replaces Goclenius P) Arabian geographer, traveller
IBN FIRNAS A.D. 270/887 7.5 N, 122.5 E Spansih; humanities, technology
IBN-RUSHD (Averroës) 1126-1198 11.5 S, 21.5 E
(replaces Cyrillus B) Muslim philosopher, physician
KOSBERG (C.A.) 1903-190 20.2 s, 149.5 E Soviet; aircraft construction
KUIPER (Gerard P.) 1905-1973 10.0 5, 22.5 W
(replaces Bonpland E) American astronomer
KUNDT (August ) 1839-1894 11.5 S, 11. 5 W
(replaces Guericke C) German physicist
LANDER (Richard Lemon) 1804-1834 15.3 S, 131.5 E English explorer
LEAKEY (Louis S.B.) 1903-1972 3.0 S, 37.5 E
(replaces Censorinus F) British archaeologist
LENITATIS, LACUS Latin word meaning softness LAC 60
(replaces Manilius N)
LINDBERGH (Charles A. ) 1902-1974 5.3 S, 53.0 E
(replaces Messier G) American aviator
LISTER, DORSA (Martin) 1638-1712 LAC 42 British stratigrapher
MACMILLAN (William Duncan) 1871-1948 24.2 N, 8.0 W American mathematician
MOISSAN (Ferdinand F.H ) 1852-1907 (Nobel, 1906) 5.0 N, 137.14 E French chemist
MORO, MONS (A. Lazzaro) 1687-1740 12.0 S, 19.6 W Italian earth scientist
NAONOBU (Ajima) c. 1732-1798 4.5 S, 57.7
(replaces Langrenus B) Japanese mathematician
NICOL, DORSUM (William) 1768-1851 LAC 42 Scottish physicist
NIGGLI, DORSUM (Paul) 1888-1953 LAC 38 Swiss earth scientist
NOBILI (Leopoldo) 1784-1835 0.5 N, 76.0 E
(replaces Schubert Y) Italian physicist
NORMAN (Robert) ca. 1590 12.0 S, 30.5
(replaces Euclides B) English physicist, navigator
ODII, LACUS Latin word meaning hatred LAC 41
OPPEL, DORSUM (Albert) 1831-1865 LAC 44,62 German palaeontologist
OWEN, DORSUM (George) 1552-1613 LAC 42 English earth scientist

p. 343

PENCK, MONS (Albrecht) 1858-1945 10.0 S, 21.5 E German geographer
PETIT (Alexis Therese) 1791-1820 2.5 N, 64.0 E
(replaces Apollonius W) French physicist
RANKINE (William John M.) 1820-1872 3.4 S 71.2 E Scottish physicist, engineer
RASPLETIN (Aleksandr A.) 1908-1967 22.5 S, 151.7 E; Soviet radio engineer
RICHARDS (Theodore W.) 1868-1928 (Nobel, 1914) 8.0 N, 140.0 E American chemist
RUBEY, DORSA (William W.) 1898-1974 LAC 75 American geologist
SCILLA, DORSUM (Agostino) 1b39-1700 LAC 38 Earth scientist
SMIRNOV, DORSA (Sergei S.) 1895-1947 LAC 42 Russian earth scientist
SMITHSON (James) l765-1829 2.5 N, 53.5 E
(replaces Taruntius N) English chemist
SODDY (Frederick) 187'7-1956 (Nobel, 1921) 0.8 N, 121.5 E British physicist
SOLITUDINIS, LACUS Latin word meaning loneliness LAC 100
SOMERVILLE (Mary Fairfax) 1780-1872 8.0 S, 65.0 E
(replaces Langrenus J) Scottish physicist, mathematician
SORBY, DORSA (Henry C.) 1826-1908 LAC 42 English chemist
STILLE, DORSA (Huns) 1876-1966 LAC 40 German earth scientist
TERMIER, DORSUM (Pierre) 1859-1930 LAC 62 French geologist
TOLANSKY (Samuel) 1907-1973 9.8 S, 16.0 W
(replaces Parry A) English physicist
VAN BIESBROECK (G.A.) 1880-197b 28.8 N, ~5.6 W
(replaces Krieger B) American astronomer
VIVIANI (Vincenzo) 1622-1703 6.0 N, 117.0 E Italian physicist, mathematician
WHISTON, DORSA (William) 1666-1753 LAC 38 English earth scientist
WINTHROP (John) 1714-1779 10.8 S, 44.5 W
(replaces Letronne P) American physicist and astronomer
WROBLEWSKI (Sigmund von) 1845-1888 24.0 S, 152.7 E Polish physicist
XENOPHON 434-355 B.C. 22.7 S, 121.9 E Athenian historian
ZÄHRINGER (Josef) 1929-1970 5.7 N, 40.2 E
(replaces Taruntius E) German cosmochemist
ZIRKEL, DORSUM (Ferdinand) 1838-1912 LAC 40 German earth scientist

p. 344

2. We recommend approval of the following list of 195 names of scientists as a bank of names for future use on the moon. Nobel prize winners are starred.

AIKEN, Howard Hathaway 1900-1973 American mathematician
ALBERT, Abraham Adrian 1905-1972 American mathematician
ALBERTUS MAGNUS c.1200-1280 German natural scientist
*ALDER, Kurt 1902-1958 German chemist (Nobel, 1950)
ALDEROTTI, Taddeo 1223-c.1295 Italian physician
ALDINI, Giovanni 1762-1834 Italian physicist
ANUCHIN, Dmitrii N. 1843-1923 Russian geographer, anthropologist
BACCELLI, Guido 1832-1916 Italian physician
BACHMANN, Augustus Q. 1652-1723 German botanist
BAER, Karl Ernst von 1792-1876 Estonian embryologist, biologist
BAILEY, Liberty Hyde, Jr. 1858-1954 American botanist
BAIRD, Spencer Fullerton 1823-1887 American zoologist
BALBIANI, Edouard G. 1823-1899 French biologist
BANKS, Joseph 1743-1820 English botanist
BANTI, Guido 1852-1925 Italian pathologist
*BÁRÁNY, Robert 1876-1936 Austrian physician (Nobel,l914)
*BARKLA, Charles G. 1877-1944 British physicist (Nobel, 1917)
BARTOLOTTI, Gian Giacomo c . 1470-d. after 1530 Italian physician
BARTON, Benjamin S. 1766-1815 American botanist, zoologist
BASSI, Agostino M. 1773-1856 Italian natural scientist
BATES, Henry W. 1825-1892 English natural scientist
BECCARI, Nello 1883-1957 Italian anatomist
BELLINI, Lorenzo 1643-1704 Italian physiologist
BELON, Pierre 1517-1564 French zoologist, botanist
BENEDETTI, Alessandro c.1450-1512 Italian anatomist
BENEDICKS, Carl Axel Fredrik 1875-1958 Swedish metallographer
*BERGIUS, Friedrich 1884-1959 German chemist (Nobel, 1931)
BERKELEY, George 1685-1753 British scientific philosopher
BERNARD, Claude 1813-1878 French physiologist
BEZOUT, Étienne 1739-1783 French mathematician
*BLACKETT, Patrick Maynard S. 1897-1974 English physicist (Nobel, 1948)
BOAS, Franz 1858-1942 German-American anthropologist
BOHLER, Lorenz 1885-1973 Austrian surgeon
BONNET, Charles 1720-1793 Swiss natural scientist, biologist

p. 345

BORDET, Jules 1870-1961 Belgian bacteriologist, physiologist
*BORN, Max 1882-1970 German physicist (Nobel, 1954)
BOS, Willem Hendrik van den 1896-1974 Dutch astronomer
*BOSCH, Carl 1874-1940 German chemist (Nobel, 1931)
*BOTHE, Walther 1891-1957 German physicist (Nobel, 1954)
BOULE, Marcellin 1861-1942 French geologist
BOVERI, Theodor 1862-1915 German zoologist, biologist
BOWER, Frederick Orpen 1855-1948 English botanist
BRAHMAGUPTA 598-d. after 665 Indian astronomer
BRANDT, Georg 1694-1768 Swedish chemist, mineralogist
*BRAUN, Ferdinand 1850-1918 German physicist (Nobel, 1909)
BROCA, Pierre Paul 1824-188o French physician, anthropologist
BRODE, Wallace R. 1900-1974 American chemist
BROOM, Robert 1866-1951 Scottish paleontologist
*BUCHNER, Eduard 1860-1917 German chemist (Nobel, 1907)
BUCKINGHAM, Edgar 1867-1940 American physicist
BUONANNI, Filippo 1638-1725 Italian natural scientist
CAILLETET, Louis Paul 1832-1913 French physicist
CANDOLLE, Augustin-Pyramus de 1778-1841 Swiss botanist
*CARREL, Alexis 1873-1944 French surgeon, physiologist (Nobel, 1912)
CASTILLON, Johann 1704-1791 Italian mathematician
*CHADWICK, James 1891-1974 British physicist (Nobel, 1935)
CHERRIE, George K. 1865-1948 American naturalist
CHEVREUL, Michel E. 1786-1889 French chemist
CLAPEYRON, Benoit-Pierre-Émile 1799-1864 French physicist
COCKERELL, Theodore D.A. 1866-1948 English zoologist
*CORI, Gerty Theresa R. 1896-1957 Czechoslovakian/American biochemist (Nobel, 1947)
CORRENS, Carl 1864-1933 German botanist
CUÉNOT, Lucien 1866-1951 French zoologist
*DALÉN, Nils Gustaf 1869-1937 Swedish engineer (Nobel, 1912)
DE BARY, Anton 1831-1888 German botanist
DE L'HOPITAL, Guilliaume F.A. 1661-1704 French mathematician
*DIELS, Otto Paul Hermann 1876-1954 German chemist (Nobel, 1950)
DIETRICH, Amalie Nelle 1821-1891 German botanist
*DOMAGK, Gerhard 1895-1964 German chemist, pathologist (Nobel, 1939)
DULONG, Pierre Louis 1785-1838 French physicist, chemist

p. 346

EAST, Edward Murray 1879-1938 American biologist
EDDY, Nathan Browne 1890-1973 American pharmacologist
EKEBERG, Anders Gustaf 1767-1813 Swedish chemist
EMICH, Friedrich Peter 1860-1940 Austrian chemist
ENGLER, Adolf G.H. 1844-1930 German botanist
ERASISTRATUS b.c. B.C. 304 Greek anatomist
*ERLANGER, Joseph 1874-1965 American physiologist (Nobel, 1944)
FAGON, Guy-Crescent 1638-1718 French botanist
FARLOW, William G. 1844-1919 American botanist
*FIBIGER, Johannes A.G. 1867-1928 Danish pathologist (Nobel,1926)
*FINSEN, Niels Ryberg 1860-1904 Danish physician (Nobel, 1903)
*FLOREY, Howard Walter 1898-1968 British pathologist (Nobel, 1945)
FLÜCKIGER, Otto 1881-1942 Swiss geographer
FLUDD, Robert 1574-1637 English chemist, physician
FORBES, James David 1809-1868 Scottish physicist
FUCHSEL, Georg C. 1722-1773 German stratigrapher
GALTON, Francis 1822-1911 English anthropologist
*GASSER, Herbert Spencer 1888-1963 American physiologist (Nobel, 1944)
GEGENBAUR, Karl 1826-1903 German anatomist, zoologist
GIBBON, John Heysham, Jr. 1903-1973 American physician
GORE, John Ellard 1845-1910 Irish astronomer
GRASHCHENKOV, Nikolai I. 1901-1965 Soviet neurologist
GRAY, Asa 1810-1888 American botanist
GREW, Nehemiah 1641-1712 English physician, botanist
*GRIGNARD, Victor 1871-1935 French chemist (Nobel, 1912)
GROOTEN, Christian c.1530-c.1603 German cartographer
*GUILLAUME, Charles Édouard 1861-1938 Swiss physicist (Nobel, 1920)
*HABER, Fritz 1868-1934 German/Swiss chemist (Nobel, 1918)
HAECKEL, Ernst H. 1834-1919 German zoologist, biologist
HALES, Stephen 1677-1761 English physiologist, botanist
HARRISON, Ross Granville 1870-1959 American biologist
*HAWORTH, Walter Norman 1883-1950 English chemist (Nobel, 1937)
*HENCH, Philip Showalter 1896-1965 American physician (Nobe1,1950)
*HEVESY, George 1885-1966 Hungarian chemist (Nobel, 1943)
*HEYROVSKY, Jaroslav 1890-1967 Czechoslovakian chemist (Nobel, 1959)
*HINSHELWOOD, Cyril 1897-1967 English chemist (Nobel, 1956)

p. 347

HOFMEISTER, Whilhelm F.B. 1824-1877 German botanist
HOOKER, Joseph Dalton 1817-1911 English botanist
*HOUSSAY, Bernardo Alberto 1887-1971 Argentinian physiologist (Nobel, 1947)
HUTCHINSON, John 1884-1972 English botanist
IBN BAJJA 1106-1138 Spanish-Arab astronomer
IBN BUTLAN c.1000-1068 Arabian physician
*KARRER, Paul 1889-1971 Russian-Swiss chemist (Nobel, 1937)
*KENDALL, Edward Calvin 1886-1972 American biochemist (Nobel, 1950)
KERR, John 1824-1907 Scottish physicist
*KOCHER, Emil Theodor 1841-1917 Swiss surgeon (Nobel, 1909)
KOHLRAUSCH, Friedrich W.G. 1840-1910 German physicist, chemist
*KOSSEL, Albrecht 1853-1927 German chemist (Nobel, 1910)
*KUHN, Richard 1900-1967 Austrian chemist (Nobel, 1938)
*LAVERAN, Charles Louis Alphonse 1845-1922 French physician (Nobel, 1907)
LEFSCHETZ, Solomon 1884-1972 Russian-American mathematician
LEHRMAN, Daniel S. 1919-1972 American psychologist
*LENARD, Philip Edward Anton 1862-1947 German physicist (Nobel, 1905)
LEUCKART, Karl G.F.R. 1822-1898 German zoologist
*LIPPMAN, Gabriel 1845-1921 French physicist (Nobel, 1908)
LISSAJOUS, Jules Antoine 1822-1880 French physicist
MACLEOD, John J.R. 1876-1935 Scottish physiologist
MALPIGHI, Marcello 1628-1694 Italian biologist, physician
MALUS, Étienne Louis 1775-1812 French physicist
MATHIAS, Émile-Ovide-Joseph 1861-1942 French physicist
MAXIM, Hiram Percy 1869-1936 American inventor
*MEYERHOF, Otto 1884-1951 German physician (Nobel, 1922)
MILLIONSHCHIKOV, Mikhail D. 1913-1973 Soviet applied physicist
*MINOT, George R. 1885-1950 American physician (Nobe1,1934)
*MORGAN, Thomas Hunt 1866-1945 American zoologist (Nobe1,1933)
MURPHY, Robert Cushman 1887-1973 American zoologist
MUSSCHENBROEK, Petrus van 1692-1761 Dutch physicist
NÄGELI, Karl Wilhelm von 1817-1891 Swiss botanist
NICHOLS, Ernest Fox 1869-1924 American physicist
OSBORN, H. Fairfield 1857-1935 American paleontologist
PECORA, William Thomas 1913-1972 American geologist
PELETIER, Jacques 1517-1582 French mathematician
PEREGRINUS, Peter fl. c.1270 French engineer, inventor

p. 348

PFEFFER, Wilhelm F.P. 1845-1920 German botanist, chemist
PLANTE, Gaston 1834-1889 French physicist
PLÜCKER, Julius 1801-1868 German physicist, mathematician
*POWELL, Cecil Frank 1903-1969 English physicist (Nobel, 1950)
*PREGL, Fritz 1869-1930 Austrian chemist (Nobel, 1923)
RABINOWITCH, Eugene 1901-1973 American biophysicist
*RICHARDSON, Owen Williams 1879-1959 English physicist (Nobel, 1928)
*RICHET, Charles Robert 1850-1935 French physiologist (Nobel, 1939)
ROTCH, A. Lawrence 1861-1912 American meteorologist
*ROUS, Peyton 1879-1970 American physician (Nobe1,1966)
ROUX, Wilhelm 1850-1924 German zoologist
RUHMKORFF, Heinrich Daniel 1803-1877 German-French inventor
*SABATIER, Paul 1854-1941 French chemist (Nobel, 1912)
SAUVEUR, Joseph 1653-1716 French physicist, mathematician
SCHIMPER, Andreas F.W. 1856-1901 Swiss botanist
SCHWANN, Theodor 1810-1882 German anatomist
SEEBECK, Thomas Johann 1770-1831 German physicist
SIEMIENOWICZ, Kazimierz fl. c.1650 Polish artillery expert
SIKORSKY, Igor Ivanovich 1889-1972 Russian-American aeronautical engineer
*SPEMANN, Hans 1869-1941 German biologist, zoologist (Nobel, 1935)
*STANLEY, Wendell M. 1904-1971 American biochemist (Nobel, 1946)
*STAUDINGER, Hermann 1881-1965 German chemist (Nobel, 1953)
STEARNS, Carl Leo 1892-1972 American astronomer
*STERN, Otto 1888-1969 German physicist (Nobel, 1943)
STRASBURGER, Eduard Adolf 1844-1912 German botanist
*SVEDBERG, Theodor 1884-1971 Swedish chemist (Nobel, 1926)
*TAMM, Igor 1895-1971 Soviet physicist (Nobel, 1958)
*THEILER, Max 1889-1972 South African bacteriologist (Nobel, 1951)
*TISELIUS, Arne 1902-1971 Swedish biochemist (Nobel,1948)
TORREY, John 1796-1873 American botanist, chemist
TSVET, Mikhail S. 1872-1919 Russian botanist
ULRICH, Edward 0. 1857-1944 American paleontologist
VAN BENEDEN, Edouard 1846-1910 Belgian cytologist
VINOGRADSKI, Sergei N. 1856-1953 Russian/French microbiologist
VIRCHOW, Rudolph L.K. 1821-1902 German pathologist
*VIRTANEN, Artturi I. 1895-1973 Finnish biochemist (Nobe1,1945)

p. 349

*VON BAEYER, Adolf 1835-1917 German chemist (Nobel, 1905)
*VON BEHRING, Emil A. 1854-1917 German bacteriologist
(Nobel, 1901)
*VON BÉKÉSY, Georg 1899-1972 Hungarian physicist
(Nobel, 1961)
VON GOEBEL, Karl I.E. 1855-1932 German botanist
VON HALLER, Albrecht 1708-1777 Swiss physician
VON SACHS, Julius 1832-1897 German botanist
*WAGNER-JAUREGG, Julius 1857-1940 Austrian physician (Nobe1,1927)
*WALLACH, Otto 1847-1931 German chemist (Nobel, 1910)
*WARBURG, Otto H. 1883-1970 German biochemist (Nobel, 1931)
WEISMANN, August 1834-1914 German biologist
*WIELAND, Heinrich Otto 1877-1957 German chemist (Nobel, 1927)
*WIEN, Wilhelm 1864-1928 German physicist (Nobel, 1911)
*WILLSTÄTTER, Richard 1872-1942 German chemist (Nobel, 1915)
WINCHELL, Newton Horace 1839-1914 American geologist
*WINDAUS, Adolf O.R. 1876-1959 German chemist (Nobel, 1928)
ZWICKY, Fritz 1898-1974 Swiss astrophysicist

3. We recommend approval of the following list of 20 names of scientists as a bank of names for future use on the moon, and the second biography of one name to be added to the records of a name already approved and assigned.

BIALOBRZESKI (C.) 1878-1953 Polish physicist
BRASIL (V.) 1865-1950 Brazilian biologist
BRONK (D.W.) 1897-1975 American physiologist
DE MORAES (A.) 1916-1970 Brazilian astronomer
HARKHEBI circa 300 B.C. Egyptian astronomer
HOPMANN (J.) 1890-1975 Austrian astronomer
KAMIENSKI (M.) 1879-1973 Polish astronomer
KEPINSKI (F.) 1885-1966 Polish astronomer
KOWALCZYK (J.) 1833-1911 Polish astronomer
LINDSAY (E.M.) 1907-1974 Irish astronomer
OLIVIER (C.P.) 1884-1975 American astronomer
PIENKOWSKI (S.) 1883-1953 Polish physicist
PIKEL'NER (S.B.) -1975 Russian astronomer
POCZOBUTT (O.M.) 1728-1808 Polish astronomer
PRAZMOWSKI (A.) 1821-1885 Polish astronomer
PRISCILLA BOK (F.) 1896-1975 American astronomer
VERTREGT (M.) 1897-1973 Dutch chemist & space scientist
VINOGRADOV (A.P.) 1895-1975 Russian geo-chemist & cosmo-chemist

p. 350

WILDT (R.) 1905-1976 American astronomer of German birth
ZONN (W.) 1905-1975 Polish astronomer

MINKOWSKI (R.L.B.) 1895-1976 American astronomer
(second biography to be added to name already approved)

4. We recommend approval of the following 12 names, assigned to lunar elevations:-

MONS MORO " " 76
(correction of Mons Maraldi Gamma)

5. We recommend approval of the following list of 6 lacus names on the moon:

LACUS SPEI* 43 N, 064 E

*Previously Lacus Struve

6. We recommend approval for the name of one valley and of the names of 12 crater
chains, named after the nearest named crater to facilitate their location and


p. 351


7. We recommend that the area bounded approximately by Montes Carpatus (N), Crater Flammarian (E), Mare Cognitum (S) and Crater Kepler (W) be named MARE INSULARUM.

8. We recommend that the term DORSUM, plural DORSA, include curvilinear elevations in the lunar maria (i.e. wrinkle ridges) as well as normal ridges; and that all DORSA continue to be named after geoscientists, as is now the practice (see Resolution II(1) above).

9. We recommend that RIMAE, singular RIMA, long depressions on the moon (straight, arcuate or sinuous) if within a crater, be named after that crater; or otherwise, be named after the nearest named formation, preferable a crater.

from p. 363-369

In compliance with resolution I(1) of the third meeting of the WGPSN in Grenoble the following Table gives the names of the Apollo landing sites as approved by the IAU at the XVth General Assembly in Sydney.


*The designation "-Apollo" has been added to a few names which duplicate those of previously named lunar craters. The designation indicated that the crater is in one of the Apollo landing sites.

Apollo 11 Landing Site

West: Sharp-rimmed, rayed crater, about 180 m in diameter and 30 m deep. The crater occurs on the western edge of the Apollo 11 landing ellipse, hence the name "West". The LM landed approximately 400 m to the west of said crater.

Apollo 12 Landing Site

A. Crater Cluster names

1. Crescent: Descriptive name of a row of seven craters arranged in the form of an arch west of the landing site.

2. Snowman: An arrangement of five craters around the large crater in which Surveyor 3 landed. The geometry resembles the fabled and familiar "snowman" figure.

B. Crater names

1. Middle Crescent: (Sampling site) Crater in the middle of the aforementioned Crescent. Its rim was the farthest stop from the LM on the first EVA.

2. Head: (Sampling site) Crater that forms the head of the aforementioned Snowman pattern.

3. Bench: (Sampling site) Crater that forms the right arm to the Snowman arrangement; it displays a prominent bench which is indicative of excavation of bedrock beneath the regolith.

4. Sharp-Apollo: (Sampling site) Sharp-rimmed and bright-rayed crater west of Bench; it is located on the extreme southwestern end of the sampling traverse on the second EVA.

5. Halo: Small haloed crater on the south rim of the crater in which Surveyor 3 landed.

6. Surveyor: (Sampling Site) The site of the Surveyor 3 landing.

7. Block: Last sampling site, small crater within Surveyor crater.

Apollo 14 Landing Site

1. Cone: A 350 m crater situated on the western edge of one of the high ridges of the Fra Mauro Formation. The physical location and ejects, of the crater give it a cone-shaped appearance. The south rim of the crater was the farthest stop of the second EVA surface sampling traverse.

2. Triplet: Three craters in a row, "North", "Center", and "South", that served as the first major landmark for landing the craft. The Apollo 14 LM landed west of North Triplet. Samples were also collected from North Triplet.

3. Doublet: Two superposed craters west of the landing point that served as the second major landmark for landing the craft. The Laser Ranging Retro Reflector was deployed on the southeast rim of Doublet crater.

4. Flank: A 30 m crater on the southwestern flank of Cone crater.
5. Old Nameless: Crater with broken rim.

6. Weird:A 40 m unusual cluster of probably two or possibly three craters forming a unique or "weird" shape. A large rock sampled east of this crater has already been named weird rock!

Apollo 15 Landing Site

The following 14 names were carefully selected from an original list of 81 names given to features and craters in the Apollo 15 landing site area.

A. Feature names

1. Apennine Front: The explored foothills of Hadley Delta which is part of the Apennine Mountain range on the eastern rim of Mare Imbrium.

2. North Complex: Complex of hills, craters, scarps and apparent flow fronts to the north of the landing site.

3. South Cluster: A cluster of secondary craters located to the south of the landing site. The western part of the cluster was explored on the second EVA.

4. Plain: A flat mare region on which the LM landed east of Rima Hadley.

5. Terrace: Slight projection of a basalt-mare unit out into Rima Hadley. The farthest sampling point to the west on EVA 3 was in its vicinity.

B. Crater names

1. Bridge: Crater within Rima Hadley whose rim appears to form a bridge across the rille. Crater was used as a landmark.

2. Dune: Crater named for a dune-shaped structure on the southeast rim. Dune crater was the sampling site of Station number 4.

3. Earthlight: A crater named after an Arthur C. Clarke novel by the same name. The crater was described in detail during the second EVA.

4. Elbow: Crater at a part of Rima Hadley resembling a bent elbow. The crater was the site of sampling station number 1.

5. Index: A prominent crater near the landing site that served as the major landmark for orbital tracking and for LM descent.

6. Last:This crater was supposed to be visited on the last traverse; it became the last crater to be approached during descent. The LM landed in its vicinity.

7. Rhysling: A crater named for Rhysling, the blind poet of "The Green Hills of Earth", a science fiction story by Robert Heinlein. Sampling station number 3 is 125 m west-southwest of the crater.

8. Spur: Crater located on a small spur of the Apennine Front. The southernmost part of the second EVA traverse was in the vicinity of this crater.

9. St. George: In Jules Verne's "From the Earth to the Moon", the moon-bound crew members celebrated a successful launch by drinking a type of wine by the name of St. George. This 2.5 km in diameter crater on the Apennine Front was the source of soil sample.

Apollo 16 Landing Site

The following 19 names were chosen from several lists of crew-given names of features and craters in the landing site area.

A. Feature names

1. Smoky Mountains: Mountainous mass north of the landing site.

2. Stone Mountain: Mountainous mass south of the landing site.

B. Crater names

1. Baby Ray: A small rayed crater atop bright rays of a larger crater.

2. Cinco: A group of five craters ("cinco" is "five" in Spanish) on the foothill of Stone Mountain in the vicinity of the southern-most portion of the second EVA traverse.

3. Spot: Two overlapping craters that served as a landing landmark. The LM landed about 100 m north of the craters.

4. End: End for being the last planned stop on the last EVA.

5. Flag: Sampling site of Station number 2 on the rim of Plum.

6. Gator: Large crater named for alligator.

7. Halfway: Crater centrally located between sampling sites 1 and 2.

8. Kiva: Crater named after the Pueblo Indian architectural structure which is usually round.

9. North Ray: One kilometer diameter bright-rayed crater north of the landing point. The ejecta and rim of the crater were sampling sites number 11 and 13.

10. Palmetto: A crater, one kilometer in diameter, named after the palm tree of the same name.

11. Plum: Large crater with Flag on the rim.

12. Ravine: A large irregular depression on the base of Smoky Mountains, part of which appears much like a ravine, a small narrow, steep-sided valley.

13. South Ray: One kilometer diameter bright-rayed crater south-southwest of the landing point. Ray materials from this crater were collected at several locations in the landing site area.

14. Spook: A crater that is one-half kilometer downrange from the landing spot. The crater's location represented a hazard and worried the crew during the preparation and training for the mission. Sampling station number 2 was on the rime of this crater.

15. Stubby: A crater, one kilometer in diameter, with a stocky and thick protrusion from Stone Mountain. Sampling station 6 is on the north rim of this crater.

16. Trap: An old, subdued and partly hidden depression that hindered planning a southwesterly traverse to sample and study Baby Ray.

17. Wreck: Sampling station number 8; a relatively old crater whose original features appear disordered and ruined by later events. The crater is located between Stubby and Trap. All three craters were used as landmarks for LM landing.

Apollo 17 Landing Site

The following 29 names were selected from the list of 67 crew-given names in the Apollo 17 landing site area.

A. Feature names

1. Bear Mountain: A cluster of hills that forms the shape of a bear.

2. Family Mountain: Named for the families of the crew members, their associates and families in general.

3. Light Mantle: Fingered mantling deposit, believed to be a landslide.

4. North Massif: Massif is a French term for a large mountain mass, this one north of the landing site.

5. Scarp: A scarp, with mare ridge-like segments, located west of the landing site.

6. Sculptured Hills: Domical hills, surrounding the landing site area, which appear sculptured.

7. South Massif: Mountain mass south of the landing site area.

8. Tortilla Flat: Flat region near the Light Mantle.

9. Wessex Cleft:A cleft in the eastern border of North Massif. Wessex was an ancient Anglican kingdom.

10. Taurus-Littrow Valley: General landing site area

B. Crater names

1. Bronté: Crater near which the first LRV stop was made; Charlotte Bronté was a 19th century English novelist.

2. Bowen-Apollo: Crater near the farthest eastern limits of the third EVA traverse.

3. Camelot: Crater named for the legendary King Arthur of the Round table, Station number 5 was on the rim of this crater.

4. Cochise: Crater named for the American Indian Apache chief. The crater was studied and described on the third EVA.

5. Emory: Large crater used as a major landmark. William H. Emory was a member of the Topographical Engineers who explored the American West.

6. Falcon: Small crater on Family Hill used for landmark tracking from orbit prior to lunar landing. It is also believed to be one of few cinder cones in the Apollo 17 site (previously, F. Crater).

7. Hess-Apollo: Large crater near Mackin-Apollo, named after the geologist H. Hess.

8. Horatio: Crater southwest of Camelot.

9. Lara: Girl's name; sampling site of station number 3.

10. Mackin-Apollo: Large crater used as a landmark, named after J. Hoover Mackin, an American geomorphologist.

11. Nansen-Apollo: Sampling site of station number 21

12. Powell: One of the large craters in the landing site area named for John Wesley Powell, an explorer of the American West.

13. Shakespeare: Large crater northeast of the landing site named after the English poet and playwright.

14. Sherlock: A crater that was used as a tracking landmark from orbit, also the last (12th) LRV sampling stop was north of the crater. It is named after Sherlock Holmes, the hero of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's novels.

15. Shorty: A dark-rimmed crater with relatively short, dark rays; it is named after a character in Richard Brautigan's contemporary novel "Trout Fishing in America."

16. Steno-Apollo: Sampling site of the first station named after the geologist Steno.

17. Trident: A triplet crater cluster shaped like the three pronged spear carried by Neptune to Poseidon, classical mythology's god of the sea.

18. Van Serg: Sampling station number 9 was on the rim of a small crater. It was named after the pseudonym that Prof. Hugh McKinstry, a 20th century mining geologist used in writing educational satire.

19. Victory: A large V-shaped depression.