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Krieger - with Van Biesbroeck, Rocco, and Ruth

Lat: 29.01°N, Long: 45.6°W, Diam: 23.14 km, Depth: 0.95 km, Rükl: 19

external image normal_Krieger+Rilles-Clem.jpg
Clementine The crater on the south rim of Krieger is separately named (Van Biesbroeck), while the larger of the two just outside the east rim is Rocco. The circular crater to the northwest of Krieger is Wollaston. Rima Krieger is barely visible snaking out Krieger's west rim, while the much more prominent rille to the west is part of Rimae Aristarchus.


LPOD Photo Gallery Lunar Orbiter Images Apollo Images

  • Wes Higgins image
  • AS15-88-12004 is one of Apollo 15's orbital Hasselblads of Krieger' (left) and Prinz (right of centre). The colored streaks are internal reflections in the Hasselblad camera and on the inside of one of CM Endeavours small windows. Note the reflection of the hand of the photographing astronaut! Research: Danny Caes.
  • AS15-90-12273 is a B-and-W close up of Krieger.
  • AS15-90-12305 . This B-and-W close up of Krieger, photographed through a small window of Apollo 15's CM Endeavour, is included in the book FULL MOON by Michael Light and Andrew Chaikin (Plate 28). Research: Danny Caes.


(LAC zone 39A1) LAC map Geologic map LM map LTO map Topophotomap




Additional Information

  • IAU page: Krieger
  • Depth data from Kurt Fisher database
    • Pike, 1976: 0.95 km
    • Westfall, 2000: 0.95 km
    • Viscardy, 1985: 1.1 km
    • Cherrington, 1969: 1.09 km


  • Named for Johann Nepomuk Krieger (1865–1902), a draftsman and selenographer. At an early age he gained an interest in astronomy. He had been inspired by the director of the Cologne Observatory to make the study and observation of the Moon his life's work. With the proceeds from sale of his late father’s small brewery, Krieger built a private observatory, later moved to Trieste, with a 10-1/2 in refractor. Krieger decided to create a definitive map of the Moon. For this purpose he obtained a series of low-resolution negatives of the lunar surface that had been taken at the Lick and Paris observatories. He enlarged these images and used them to provide positional accuracy for his subsequent drawings. His illustrations of the Moon were made in charcoal, graphite pencil, and ink, and were considered superior to any previously produced lunar maps in their accuracy and level of detail, and continue to be considered works of art. He lived long enough to see his first 28 plates published as volume 1 of his Mond Atlas in 1898. About 10 years following his untimely death, his remaining drawings and sketches were published, at the suggestion of Krieger's friend Professor Seeliger, in a second set compiled and edited by the Austrian selenographer Rudolf König. This "New Atlas" (appearing in 1912) included a volume of descriptive text based on Krieger's observations. Writing in 1961, Sky and Telescope editor-in-chief Ashbrook suggested that the lunar drawings produced by this Bavarian inn-keeper’s son “were of an excellence that remains perhaps unmatched to this day.” Something very similar to Krieger’s technique was used for producing the first NASA LAC charts in the early 1960’s, where the final shaded relief background was obtained by supplementing the best available photographs with visual observations of fine details using the U.S. Naval Observatory’s large reflector in Flagstaff. It would appear that subsequent changes in technology have finally rendered this powerful technique obsolete, for it is unlikely that a human at the eyepiece can any longer observe detail finer than that which can be directly recorded in a carefully stacked and averaged sequence of photographs; particularly if the deleterious effects of seeing have been compensated for, in the original photographs, using the methods of adaptive optics.
  • Krieger was not included as a named feature in Mary Blagg's Collated List (1913), but was slipped into the original IAU nomenclature of Blagg and Müller (1935) as Catalog Number 1737a. The name is attributed there to König with a note suggesting it may have been Schmidt's Wollaston B.
  • Examples of Krieger's drawings from the 1898 Atlas can be found on-line courtesy of Henk Bril.
  • The following information about the format and contents of the two issues of Krieger's Atlas was provided by astronomical historian Robert Garfinkle:
    • As indicated above, the 1898 issue of the Atlas (a single volume) ends at Plate ("Tafel" in German) 28.
    • The 1912 issue, prepared by König, consists of two new volumes:
      • One labeled "Text"
      • One labeled "Atlas" beginning with Plate 29. At the end of this volume is the excellent nearside overview/index chart to both issues, drawn by König (who Krieger presumably never met). Although it is reproduced on Henk Bril's site, the König map does not appear in the 1898 issue.
  • List of new lunar nomenclature introduced by Krieger and König.

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  • Ashbrook, Joseph. 1961. "J. N. Krieger: The Moon half-won,” Sky and Telescope (Feb. issue), p. 92. (reprinted in The Astronomial Scrapbook)
  • Krieger, Johann Nepomuk. 1898. Mond-Atlas: entworfen nach den Beobachtungen an der Pia-Sternwarte in Triest. Triest: Im Selbstverlage des Verfassers.
  • Krieger, Johann Nepomuk, and Rudolf König. 1912. Mond-Atlas. Wien: E.H. Mayer.
  • Krieger, Johann Nepomuk. 2010. Mond-Atlas. Bremen: Europ. Hochschulverl. (modern reprint of the 1898 publication, partially readable on Google Books)
  • Hill, Harold. 1991. A Portfolio of Lunar Drawings, page 77 (small drawing of Krieger and surrounds).

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