Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature 1994
- 1 Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature 1994
- 2 Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature 1994
- 2.1 PREFACE
- 2.2 CONTENTS
- 2.3 INTRODUCTION
- 2.4 NAMING CONVENTIONS
- 2.5 SPECIFICS OF THE GAZETTEER
- 2.6 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
- 2.7 REFERENCES CITED
- 2.8 APPENDIX 1. CHAIRMEN OF IAU WORKING GROUP AND TASK GROUPS
- 2.9 APPENDIX 2. IAU TASK GROUP MEMBERS
- 2.10 APPENDIX 5. DESCRIPTOR TERMS (FEATURE TYPES)
- 2.11 APPENDIX 6. CATEGORIES FOR NAMING FEATURES ON THE PLANETS AND SATELLITES
- 2.12 APPENDIX 7. PLANET AND SATELLITE NAMES AND DISCOVERERS
Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature 1994
The following is a computer transcription of pages from the first "official" printed version of the "IAU Planetary Gazetteer" as prepared and published by the USGS, formatted to the Wiki style. It may contain optical character recognition errors.
Some sections irrelevant to the history of lunar nomenclature have been omitted, and are indicated by ellipsis (...). The approximate original pagination is indicated by horizontal lines with the small Roman numerals at the top or bottom of each section indicating the page numbers.
Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature 1994
Edited by Raymond M. Batson and Joel F. Russell
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY BULLETIN 2129
(U.S. Department of the Interior logo in right margin)
Prepared in cooperation with the International Astronomical Union — Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature
Information about all names of topographic and albedo features on planets and satellites that the International Astronomical Union has approved from its founding in 1919 through its triennial meeting in 1994
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, WASHINGTON : 1995
(reverse of title page)
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
- BRUCE BABBITT, Secretary
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
- GORDON P. EATON, Director
For sale by U.S. Geological Survey, Information Services
- Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225
Any use of trade, product, or firm names in this publication is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.
Published in the Eastern Region, Reston, Va.
Manuscript approved for publication February 14, 1995
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Gazetteer of planetary nomenclature 1994 / edited by Raymond M. Batson and Joel F. Russell; prepared in cooperation with the International Astronomical Union—Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature.
- p. cm. — (U.S. Geological Survey bulletin ; 2129)
"Information about all names of topographic and albedo features on planets and satellites
that the International Astronomical Union has approved from its founding in 1919
through its triennial meeting in 1994."
Includes bibliographical references.
Supt.of Doc. no.: I 19.3:2129
1. Planets—Nomenclature—Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Planets—Names—Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Batson, Raymond M. II. Russell, Joel F. III. Series.
QE75.B9 no. 2129
Planetary nomenclature, like terrestrial nomenclature, is used to uniquely identify a feature on the surface of a planet or satellite so that the feature can be easily located, described, and discussed. This volume contains detailed information about all names of topographic and albedo features on planets and satellites (and some planetary ring and ring-gap systems) that the International Astronomical Union has named and approved from its founding in 1919 through its triennial meeting in 1994.
This edition of the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature supersedes an earlier informal volume distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1986 as Open-File Report 84-692 (Masursky and others, 1986). Named features are depicted on maps of the Moon published first by the U.S. Defense Mapping Agency or the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center and more recently by the U.S. Geological Survey; on maps of Mercury, Venus, Mars, and the satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus published by the U.S. Geological Survey; and on maps of the Moon, Venus, and Mars produced by the U.S.S.R.
Although we have attempted to check the accuracy of all data in this volume, we realize that some errors will remain in a work of this size. Readers noting errors or omissions are urged to communicate them to the U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Astrogeology, Rm. 409, 2255 N. Gemini Drive, Flagstaff, AZ 86001.
Introduction ............................................... VII
- History of Planetary Nomenclature........................... VII
- How Names Are Approved ................................ VII
- IAU Rules and Conventions................................ VIII
- Naming Conventions..................................... XVI
- Specifics of the Gazetteer ................................. XVI
- Acknowledgments....................................... XIX
- References Cited ....................................... XIX
Section 1: Names Listed by Planet, Satellite, and Feature Type............ 1
- Mercury ............................................. 2
- Venus............................................... 12
- Moon ............................................... 34
- Mars................................................ 96
- Asteroids............................................. 128
- Jovian System ......................................... 128
- Saturnian System ....................................... 139
- Uranian System ........................................ 146
- Neptunian System....................................... 149
Section 2: Alphabetical List of Names ............................. 151
Appendix 1. Chairmen of IAU Working Group and Task Groups .......... 282
Appendix 2. IAU Task Group Members............................ 283
Appendix 3. Abbreviations for Continents and for Countries or Ethnic Groups
Used in the Gazetteer............................ 284
Appendix 4. Sources of Planetary Names........................... 287
Appendix 5. Descriptor Terms (Feature Types)....................... 290
Appendix 6. Categories for Naming Features on the Planets and Satellites .... 291
Appendix 7. Planet and Satellite Names and Discoverers ................ 294
1. Surface features on small satellites .................................................... XI
2. Ring-system nomenclature of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune..................................... XIV
1. Satellite orbital data................................................................ IX
2. Satellite physical and photometric data................................................... X
Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature 1994
Edited by Raymond M. Batson and Joel F. Russell
HISTORY OF PLANETARY NOMENCLATURE
The International Astronomical Union (IAU) has been the arbiter of planetary and satellite nomenclature since its organizational meeting in 1919 in Brussels, Belgium. At that time a committee was appointed to regularize the chaotic lunar and Martian nomenclatures then current. The IAU committee was an outgrowth of an earlier committee established in 1907 by the Council of the International Association of Academies, meeting in General Assembly in Vienna, Austria, This committee had been charged with the task of clarifying the lunar nomenclature but had not published a report, due to a succession of deaths of members. However, a great deal of preliminary work had been done by one member, Mary Blagg.
The IAU appointed Miss Blagg and several other astronomers to the newly commissioned nomenclature committee, chaired by H.H. Turner (IAU, 1922). The report of this committee, "Named Lunar Formations" by Blagg and Müller (1935), was the first systematic listing of lunar nomenclature. Later, "The System of Lunar Craters, quadrants I, II, III, IV" was published by D.W.G. Arthur and others (1963, 1964, 1965, 1966), under the direction of Gerard P. Kuiper, These catalogues listed the names (or other designations) and coordinates of features in the current, greatly expanded lunar nomenclature; the accompanying map (also in four parts) showed their locations. These works were adopted by the IAU and became the recognized sources for lunar nomenclature.
The Martian nomenclature was clarified in 1958, when an ad' hoc committee of the IAU chaired by Audouin Dollfus recommended for adoption the names of 128 albedo features (bright, dark, or colored) observed through ground-based telescopes (IAU, 1960). These names were based on a system of nomenclature developed in the late 19th century by the Italian astronomer G.V. Schiaparelli (1879) and expanded in the early 20th century by E.M. Antoniadi (1930), an Italian-born astronomer working at Meudon, France.
The requirements for extraterrestrial nomenclature were dramatically changed in 1957 when the age of space exploration was inaugurated by the successful flight of Sputnik and by America's consequent determination to land a man on the Moon in the 1960's. As detailed images became available of one newly discriminated extraterrestrial surface after another, the need to name features on these surfaces became evident. Once again the IAU assumed the task of expanding and overseeing planetary nomenclature so that the effort would proceed in an orderly, fair, and evenhanded way.
In 1970, in response to the successful Mariner flyby missions to Mars during the 1960's and in anticipation of the Mariner 9 Mars Orbiter, a Mars nomenclature working group was formed, chaired by Gerard de Vaucouleurs; this group was asked to designate names for the topographic features shown in the new spacecraft images (de Vaucouleurs and others, 1975). At about the same time, Donald H. Menzel chaired an ad hoc lunar committee that suggested names for features discriminated by the Soviet Zond and American Lunar Orbiter and Apollo cameras (IAU, 1971).
At the 1973 meeting of the IAU in Sydney, Australia, the nomenclature groups were reorganized and expanded. The Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN) was appointed with Peter Millman of Canada as its first president. Task groups for the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, and the Outer Solar System were formed to conduct the preliminary work of choosing themes and proposing names for features on each newly discriminated planet and satellite. In 1982 at Patras, Greece, Harold Masursky of the United States became president of the WGPSN; he was succeeded in 1991 by Kaare Aksnes of Norway. A new task group was formed in 1984 to name surface features on small primitive bodies (asteroids and comets).
HOW NAMES ARE APPROVED
When images are first obtained of the surface of a planet or satellite, a theme for naming features is chosen, and a few important
features are named, usually by members of the appropriate IAU task group. Later, as higher resolution images and maps become available, additional features are named, usually at the request of investigators mapping or describing specific surfaces, features, or geologic formations. However, anyone—either scientist or layman—may suggest a name or ask that a specific feature be named. Names considered appropriate by a task group are submitted to the WGPSN, which meets once a year. The WGPSN transmits its list of recommended names to the yearly meeting of the lAU's Executive Committee, which checks the names for conformity to IAU standards. Successful candidate names are then presented for adoption to the lAU's General Assembly, which meets triennially. A name is not considered to be official—that is, "adopted"—until the General Assembly has given its approval. Names approved by the Executive Committee, but not yet adopted by the General Assembly, are given "provisional" status. Provisional names may be published, so long as their status is noted in the publication.
Suggestions for naming a specific feature or requests that a specific name be used should be sent to the president of the WGPSN or to the chairman of the appropriate task group (see Appendixes 1 and 2 of this volume) or to the U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Astrogeology in Flagstaff, Ariz.
IAU RULES AND CONVENTIONS
Names adopted by the IAU must follow various rules and conventions established through the years by the Union. At the first meeting of the WGPSN, the following rules were adopted (paraphrased and condensed from IAU, 1977):
- 1. Nomenclature is a tool and the first consideration should be to make it simple, clear, and unambiguous. As corollaries to rule 1, the WGPSN decided that names should be easy to pronounce and spell and that single names of no more than three syllables are preferred. Exceptions are allowed for persons or mythical characters known by double names.
- 2. The number of names chosen for each body should be kept to a minimum and their placement governed by the requirements of the scientific community.
- 3. Duplication of the same name on two or more bodies is to be avoided. The nearly 2,000 names of asteroids (not included in this volume) are excepted from this rule.
- 4. Individual names chosen for each body should be expressed in the language of origin. Transliteration and pronunciation for various alphabets should be given, but there will be no translation from one language to another. Most planetary maps are published in the United States; however, maps published in other countries use the language of that country. Maps published in Russian use the Cyrillic typescript; (romanized) Latin and Greek terms are translated, and names are transliterated.
- 5. Where possible, the practice established by early lunar nomenclature should be used, in which descriptors (feature types) are written (except in Russian usage) in their Latin or Greek form. This rule has been invoked by the IAU when establishing a theme for naming features on newly discriminated satellites or planets. Thus, newly discovered Uranian satellites and features on previously discovered satellites continued the theme established by William Lassell when he named the first four satellites for characters (mostly bright and dark spirits) from Shakespeare and Pope; names for satellites of Neptune continue the "watery" theme established by the names of the planet and first two satellites discovered.
- 6. Solar system nomenclature should be international in its choice of names. Recommendations submitted to the IAU national committees will be considered, but final approval of any selection is the responsibility of the IAU. The WGPSN strongly supports equitable representation of ethnic groups/countries on each individual map; however, a higher percentage of names from the country planning a landing is allowed on landing site maps.
- 7. We must look to the future in general discussions of solar system nomenclature and attempt to lay the groundwork for future requirements that will result from the development of the space program.
Additional rules developed since 1976 include the following:
- 8. No names having political, military or religious significance, or names of modern philosophers, may be used. Names of political figures prior to the 19th century are acceptable.
- 9. Persons being honored must have been deceased for at least 3 years before his or her name can be assigned to a feature. Exceptions to this rule were made for living astronauts and cosmonauts because their contributions to space exploration were unique.
- 10. When more than one spelling of a name is extant, the spelling preferred by the person, or referenced in Appendix 4, is used.
- 11. Diacritical marks are a necessary part of a name and will be used.
- 12. Ring and ring-gap nomenclature and names for newly discovered small satellites (tables 1 and 2, figs. 1 and 2) are developed by joint deliberation of the Working Group and Commission 20, which is in charge of naming asteroids and comets. Names will not be assigned to newly discovered satellites until their orbital elements are reasonably well known or definite features have been identified on them. Duplications between the names of asteroids and satellites should be minimized.
In addition to these general rules, each task group develops additional conventions as it formulates an interesting and meaningful nomenclature for individual planetary bodies. Most of these conventions are self evident from study of the appendixes that follow.
(page IX: Table 1: Satellite Orbital Data -- omitted)
(page X: Table 1: Satellite Physical and Photometric Data -- omitted)
(page XI-XV: labeled photos of planetary rings and minor bodies -- omitted)
Names for all planetary features include a descriptor term (Appendix 5), with the exception of two feature types. For craters, the descriptor term is implicit. Some features named on lo and Triton do not carry a descriptor term because they are ephemeral.
In general, the naming convention for a feature type remains the same regardless of its size. Exceptions to this rule are channels (valles) on Mars and craters on the Moon, Mars, and Venus; naming conventions for these features differ according to size. The categories for naming features on each planet or satellite (and the exceptions) are listed in Appendix 6. One feature classification, regio, was originally used on early maps of the Moon and Mercury (drawn from telescopic observations) to describe vague albedo features. It is now used to delineate a broad geographic region.
Named features on bodies so small that coordinates have not yet been determined are identified on drawings of the body that are included in the IAU Transactions volume of the year when the names were adopted (see also fig. IA, B, and C). Satellite rings and gaps in the rings are named for scientists who have studied these features; drawings that show these names are also included in the pertinent Transactions volume (see also fig. 2A and B), Names for atmospheric features are
informal at present; a formal system will be chosen in the future.
The boundaries of many large features (such as terrae, regiones, planitiae, and plana) are not topographically or geomorphically distinct; the coordinates of these features are identified from an arbitrarily chosen center point. Boundaries (and thus coordinates) may be determined more accurately from geochemical and geophysical data obtained by future missions.
SPECIFICS OF THE GAZETTEER
The complete file of names is sorted in two ways: first, alphabetically by planetary body, satellite, and feature type; second, alphabetically without respect to planet or feature type. A key to column classification and codes follows at the end of this section.
Coordinates listed in columns labeled "lat" and "long" are taken from the maps identified in columns "quad" and "map." For maps published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the field "quad" identifies the informal name of the map, and the field "map" lists the USGS map identification ("I") number. In identifying lunar maps published by the Defense Mapping Agency or the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center in the 1960's and early 1970's or Soviet maps of Venus published in 1985 and 1986, we use different systems of identification, as shown in the key below,
We identify continent ("ct") and ethnic group ("et") of a name in order to compute and equalize international representation (see Appendix 3).
COLUMN CLASSIFICATION AND CODES
P (planet) Planet on which name is found (This field does not appear in the sort by planet and feature type.)
- Key to Planet codes:
- A=asteroid belt L=Moon (Luna) S=Saturn
- H-Mercury (Hermes) M=Mars U=Uranus
- J=Jupiter N=Neptune V=Venus
Sa (satellite) Satellite on which name is found (This field does not appear in the sort by planet and feature type.)
- Key to satellite codes:
- am=Amalthea gs=Gaspra ne=Nereid
- ar=Ariel hy=Hyperion ob=Oberon
- ca=Callisto ia=Iapetus ph=Phobos
- de=Deimos id=Ida pu=Puck
- di=Dione ss=small satellites of Uranus rh=Rhea
- en=Enceladus io=Io um=Umbriel
- ep=Epimetheus ja=Janus te=Tethys
- eu=Europa mi=Mimas ti=Titania
- ga=Ganymede mr=Miranda tr=Triton
name (feature name) As spelled by honoree or by reference shown in Appendix 4; brackets indicate that name has been dropped.
lat (latitude) Degrees 0 to 90 followed by N or S.
long (longitude) Degrees 0 to 360 followed by E or W; 0 to 180 E and 0 to 180 W on the Moon.
diam (diameter) Diameter or longest dimension of feature in kilometers.
ct (continent) Continent or large geographic division that is origin of name (see Appendix 3).
et (ethnic group) Country or ethnic group that is origin of name (see Appendix 3).
quad (map name)* Informal name of map; planet or satellite abbreviation or number, or abbreviation of map name. (This field does not appear in the alphabetical sort.)
map (map number) USGS, Soviet, or Defense Mapping Agency number of map. (This field does not appear in the alphabetical sort.)
as (approval status) Number indicates IAU level of approval:
- 1 = Suggested
- 2 = Task Group approval
- 3 = WGPSN approval
- 4 = Executive Committee approval
- 5 = Adopted by IAU General Assembly
- 6 = Dropped, disallowed
ad (approval date) Year when name was adopted.
ref (reference) Reference from which spelling and origin information were derived (see Appendix 4).
ft (feature type) Latin or Greek descriptor term (see Appendix 5). origin Short explanation of name.
*Abbreviations used in this column, by planet or planetary system, are as follows:
Maps of Mercury
- H-n Mercury maps H-l through H-15; scale 1:5 million.
Maps of Venus
- 1:50M Preliminary pictorial map of Venus; scale 1:50 million.
- B1 to 29 Number of Soviet Venera map, scale 1:5 million, on which named feature occurs. I-number denotes USGS Magellan
- Planning Chart map.
- LAC Lunar Charts 1 through 154; published in 1966 by ACIC for U.S. Air Force and NASA; scale 1:1 million.
- LOC Lunar Planning Charts 1 through 4; published in 1971 by ACIC for NASA under direction of U.S. Department of Defense (DoD); scale 1:2.75 million.
- LM Lunar Maps 1 through 144; scale 1:1 million; published 1978.
- LMP Lunar Earthside, Farside and Polar charts 1 through 3; published in 1970 by ACIC for DoD; scale 1:6 million.
- LPC Lunar Chart, published by Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) for NASA; scale 1:10 million.
- LTO Lunar Topographic Orthophoto Maps 1 through 104a,b,c,d; published by DMA, 1971-197x; scale 1:250,000.
- Sn "Special" map of LTO series, at high resolution (scale usually 1:50,000, may be 1:25,000 or 1:10,000). Full designation would be LTO 41B4 S2.
- xxx Adopted name that is not on any published map.
(page XVIII: maps of Mars and planetary satellites --omitted)
The Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature wishes to express its appreciation for the efforts of the following people. The late Dr. Peter Millman, National Research Council of Canada in Ottawa, provided the original list of planetary names and carefully reviewed all planetary nomenclature material. Ewen Whitaker, now retired from the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, Ariz., corrected the lunar list. The late Dr. Harold Masursky aggressively led and managed the planetary nomenclature process. Dr. Jean Duchesne-Guillermin, Liege, Belgium, performed authoritative and careful editing of the 1986 edition of the Gazetteer. We also thank Dr. Audouin Dollfus of the Observatoire de Paris, Dr. A.T. Basilevsky and Dr. G. Burba of the Vernadsky Institute, Moscow, and Mr. William Musielak of the University of Arizona, Tucson, for reviews of maps during the critical prepublication period. Many USGS employees in Flagstaff, Ariz., are responsible for producing the Gazetteer. Mary Strobell, now retired, and Joel F. Russell, no longer with the Survey, coordinated all details of the naming process, from collecting names and submitting them to the appropriate IAU task groups and the WGPSN to applying names to features on maps. They were assisted at various stages by D.L. Applebee, Katherine Beer, Rebecca Birkholst, Jennifer Blue, A.L. Dial, Jr., Elizabeth Dyer, Derrick D. Hirsch, Victoria Lobato, Connie Nordstrom, Jana Ruhlmann, Christine Vargas, and Doris Weir, who made corrections and additions; by Janet Barrett, Robert Gurule, C.E. Isbell, K.D. Knisely, and Bill Woodsmall, who wrote computer programs to sort and print the files; and by R.D. Carroll and Ramon Sabala, who supplied cartographic expertise.
- Antoniadi, E. M., 1930, La planète Mars, pi. 2-5: Paris, Libraire Scientifique Herman et Cie., 239 p.
- Arthur, D.W.G., Agnieray, A.P., Horvath, R.A., Wood, C.A., and Chapman, C.R., 1963, The system of lunar craters, quadrant I: Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, v. 2, no. 30, p. 71-78,4 unnumbered appendixes, and 12 unnumbered maps.
- ------1964, The system of lunar craters, quadrant II: Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, v. 3, no. 40, p. 1-59 and 12 unnumbered maps.
- Arthur, D.W.G., Agnieray, A.P., Pellicori, R.H., Wood, C.A., and Weller, T., 1965, The system of lunar craters, quadrant III: Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, v. 3, no. 50, p. 61-62, catalogue p. 1-146, and 12 unnumbered maps.
- Arthur, D.W.G., Pellicori, R.H., and Wood, C.A., 1966, The system of lunar craters, quadrant IV: Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, v. 5, no. 70, catalogue p. 1-208 and 12 unnumbered maps.
- Blagg, Mary, and Müller, Karl, 1935, Named lunar formations: London, Percy Lund, Humphries & Co. Ltd., 196 p.
- International Astronomical Union, 1922, Transactions of the International Astronomical Union, Rome, May 12-20, 1922: London, Imperial College Bookstall, v. 1, p. 52-53.
- ------1960, Transactions of the International Astronomical Union, Moscow, August 12-20, 1958: Cambridge University Press, v. 10, pi. l,p. 262.
- ------1971, Commission 17: The Moon, in Proceedings of the 14th General Assembly, Brighton, 1970: Transactions of the International Astronomical Union, v. 14B, p. 138-145.
- ------1977, Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature, in Proceedings of the 16th General Assembly, Grenoble, 1976: Transactions of the International Astronomical Union, v. 16B, p. 321-369.
- Masursky, Harold, and others, 1986, Annual gazetteer of planetary nomenclature: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 84-692.
- Schiaparelli, G.V., 1879, Osservazioni astronomiche e fisiche sull'asse di rotazione e sulla topografia del pianeta Marte, in Atti della R. Accademia del Lincei, Memoria della cl. di scienze fisiche. Memoria 2, ser. 3, v. 10, 1880-81, p. 281-387.
- de Vaucouleurs, Gerard, Blunck, Jürgen, Davies, Merton, Dollfus, Audouin, Koval, I.K., Kuiper, G.P., Masursky, Harold, Miyamoto, S., Moroz, V.I., Sagan, Carl, and Smith, Bradford, 1975, The new Martian nomenclature of the International Astronomical Union: Icarus, v. 26, p. 85-98.
SECTION 1—NAMES LISTED BY PLANET, SATELLITE, AND FEATURE TYPE
(pages 2-33 omitted)
(sample catalog page)
34 GAZETTEER OF PLANETARY NOMENCLATURE 1994
||Ernst K..; German optician, physician, astronomer (1840-1905).|
||Charles Greeley; American astrophysicist (1872-1973).|
||Mohammed; Egyptian writer (1849-1905).|
||Niels H.; Norwegian mathematician (1802-1829).|
||Abraham Bar Rabbi BenEzra; Spanish Jewish mathematician, astronomer (1092-1167).|
||Antonio; Italian astronomer (1846-1928); Georgio; Italian astronomer (1882-1982).|
||Persian mathematician, astronomer (940-998).|
||Abu'L-fida, Ismail (1273-1331); Syrian geographer.|
||Cristobal; Portuguese doctor, natural historian (1515-1580).|
||John Couch; British astronomer (1819-1892); Charles H.; American astronomer (1868-1951); Walter S.; American astronomer (1876-1956).|
||Greek geographer (unkn-c. 150 B.C.).|
||Greek astronomer (unkn-fl. A.D. 92).|
||George Biddell; British astronomer (1801-1892).|
||Robert G.; American astronomer (1864-1951).|
||Greek female name.|
||Irish male name.|
||A. A.; Spanish-Arab geographer (1010-1094).|
||Al-Batani, Muhammed Ben Geber C.; Iraqi astronomer, mathematician (850-929).|
||Persian astronomer, mathematician, geographer (973-1048).|
||Harold L.; American astronomer (1890-1964).|
||Kurt; German organic chemist; Nobel laureate (1902-1958).|
||Edwin E., Jr.; American astronaut (1930-Live).|
||Nikolaj P.; Soviet rocket designer, engineer (1913-1964).|
||Alexander the Great, of Macedon; Greek geographer (356-323 B.C.).|
||Al Fargani, Muhammed Ebn Ketir; Persian astronomer (unkn-c. 840).|
lat: latitude of feature center.
long: longitude of feature center.
diam: diameter or long dimension of feature.
ct: continent of name origin (see page 284 ff.)
et: ethnicity of name origin (see page 284 ff.)
quad: map quadrangle or informal name (see page xvii ff.).
map: map name or USGS map number (see page xvii ff.).
as: name approval status (see page xvii).
ad: name approval date (year).
ref: reference source for name (see page 287 ff.).
ft: feature type (see page 290).
(pages 35-279 omitted)
APPENDIX 1. CHAIRMEN OF IAU WORKING GROUP AND TASK GROUPS
Kaare Aksnes, President, Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature
Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics
P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315
Oslo 3, Norway
V.V. Shevchenko, Chairman, Lunar Task Group
Sternberg State Astronomical Institute
13 Universitetsky Prospekt
119899 Moscow, Russia
David Morrison, Chairman, Mercury Task Group
Ames Research Center, MS 245-1
Moffett Field, CA 94035
G.A. Burba, Chairman, Venus Task Group
19 Kosygin St.
Moscow 117975, Russia
B.A. Smith, Chairman, Mars Task Group
Institute for Astronomy
P.O. Box 4729 Hilo, HI 96720
T.C. Owen, Chairman, Outer Solar System Task Group
Institute for Astronomy
2680 Woodlawn Drive
Honolulu, HI 96822
B.C. Marsden, Chairman, Asteroids and Comets Task Group
Center for Astrophysics
60 Garden St.
Cambridge, MA 02138
APPENDIX 2. IAU TASK GROUP MEMBERS
Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature
PRESIDENT: K. Aksnes Norway
M. Ya Marov Russia
B. Marsden U.S.A.
P. Moore Great Britain
D. Morrison U.S.A.
T.C. Owen U.S.A.
V.V. Shevchenko Russia
B.A. Smith U.S.A.
J. Blue U.S.A.
G. Burba Russia
M.E. Davies U.S.A.
L. Gaddis U.S.A.
P. Masson France
Task Group for Lunar Nomenclature
V. V. Shevchenko (Chair) Russia
F. El-Baz U.S.A.
H. Mizutani Japan
P. Pinet France
S. K. Runcorn Great Britain
E. A. Whitaker U.S.A.
(other task groups omitted)
(pages 284-289 omitted)
These pages were not scanned because the abbreviations for Continents, Countries, and Ethnic Groups (Appendix 3) are essentially the same as those used in the modern on-line Gazetteer. Similarly, the list of Sources of Planetary Names (Appendix 4 -- cited in the "Ref" column) is simply the first part (and uses the same reference numbers) as the expanded version found on-line.
APPENDIX 5. DESCRIPTOR TERMS (FEATURE TYPES)
FEATURE DESCRIPTION DESIGNATION
Albedo feature AL
Catena, catenae Chain of craters CA
Cavus, cavi Hollows, irregular depressions CB
Chaos Distinctive area of broken terrain CH
Chasma, chasmata Canyon CM
Colles Small hills or knobs CO
Corona, coronae Ovoid-shaped feature CR
Crater, craters Bowl-shaped depression AA
Dorsum, dorsa Ridge DO
Eruptive center Eruptive center ER
Facula, faculae Bright spot FA
Farrum, farra pancakelike structures FR
Plexus, flexus Cuspate, linear feature FE
Fluctus, fluctus Flow terrain FL
Fossa, fossae Long, narrow, shallow depression FO
Labes, labes Landslide LA
Labyrinthus Complex of intersecting valleys LB
Lacus1 "Lake"; small plain LC
Landing site name Feature named on Apollo map or report LF
Large ringed feature LG
Linea, lineae Elongate marking LI
Macula, maculae Dark spot MA
Mare1 "Sea"; large circular plain ME
Mensa, mensae Mesa, flat-topped elevation MN
Mons, monies Mountain MO
Oceanus1 "Ocean"; large plain OC
Palus1 "Swamp"; small plain PA
Patera, paterae Shallow crater; scalloped, complex edge PE
Planitia Low plain PL
Planum Plateau or high plain PM
Promontorium1 "Cape"; headland PR
Regio Region RE
Reticulum, reticula reticular (netlike) pattern RT
Rima, rimae1 Fissure RI
Rupes, rupes Scarp RU
Scopulus Lobate or irregular scarp SC
Sinus "Bay"; small plain SI
Small satellites SS
Sulcus, sulci Subparallel furrows and ridges SU
Terra Extensive land mass TA
Tessera, tesserae "Tile"; terrain formed of polygonal pattern TE
Tholus, tholi Small domical mountain or hill TH
Undae Dunes UN
Vallis, valles Valley VA
Vastitas Widespread lowlands VS
'Used only on the Moon.
APPENDIX 6. CATEGORIES FOR NAMING FEATURES ON THE PLANETS AND SATELLITES
Craters Famous deceased artists, musicians, painters, authors
Monies Caloris, from Latin word for "hot"
Planitiae Names for Mercury in various languages
Rupes Ships of discovery or scientific expeditions
Valles Radio telescope facilities
Chasmata Goddesses of hunt; Moon goddesses
Coronae Fertility and earth goddesses
Craters Over 20 km; famous women; under 20 km, common female first names
Dorsa Sky goddesses
Farrum Water goddesses
Fluctus Goddess, miscellaneous
Lineae Goddesses of war
Monies Goddesses, miscellaneous (also one radar scientist)
Paterae Famous women
Planitiae Mythological heroines
Planum (one only) Lakshmi; goddess of prosperity
Regiones Giantesses and Titanesses (also Greek alphanumeric)
Rupes Goddesses of hearth and home
Tesserae Goddesses of fate or fortune
Terrae Goddesses of love
Valles Word for planet Venus in various world languages
Craters, Catenae, Dorsa, Rimae Large craters: famous deceased scientists, scholars, artists; small craters: common first names
Other features named from nearby craters
Lacus, Maria, Paludes, Sinus Latin terms describing weather and other abstract concepts
Monies Terrestrial mountain ranges or nearby craters
Rupes Name of nearby mountain ranges (terrestrial names)
Valles Name of nearby features
MARS AND MARTIAN SATELLITES
- Large craters Deceased scientists who have contributed to the sludy of Mars
- Small craters Villages of the world (less than 100,000 population, U.N. Yearbook)
- Large valles Name for Mars/star in various languages
- Small valles Classical or modern names of rivers
- Other features From nearest named albedo feature on Schiaparelli or Antoniadi maps
DEIMOS Authors who wrote aboul satellites
PHOBOS Scientists who helped discovery
(pages 292-293 omitted)
APPENDIX 7. PLANET AND SATELLITE NAMES AND DISCOVERERS
MERCURY Named Mercurius by the Romans because it appears to move so swiftly.
VENUS Roman name for the goddess of love. This planet was considered to be the brightest and most beautiful planet or star in the heavens. Other civilizations have named it for their god(ess) of love/war.
MOON Every civilization has had a name for the satellite of Earth that is known, in English, as the Moon. The name is of Anglo-Saxon derivation.
MARS Named by the Romans for their god of war because of its red-bloodlike-color. Other civilizations also named this planet from this attribute; for example, the Egyptians named it "Her Desher," meaning "the red one."
- Phobos Inner satellite of Mars; named in 1877 by the discoverer, Asaph Hall, for one of the horses that drew Mars' chariot; also called an "attendant" or "son" of Mars, according to chapter 15, line 119 of Homer's "Iliad." This Greek word means "fear."
- Deimos Outer Martian satellite, also named by Asaph Hall for one of Mars' horses/sons/companions; the word means "fear" or "terror" in Greek.
JUPITER The largest and most massive of the planets was named Zeus by the Greeks and Jupiter by the Romans; he was the most important deity in both pantheons.
- Metis First wife of Zeus. He swallowed her when she became pregnant; Athena was subsequently born from the forehead of Zeus.
- Adrastea A nymph of Crete to whose care Rhea entrusted the infant Zeus.
- Amalthea Discovered by E. E. Barnard in 1892, who eventually chose a name suggested by Flammarian for the satellite. Amalthea (a goat in some accounts, a princess of Crete in others) suckled Zeus (Jupiter) as a young child.
- Thebe A nymph abducted by Zeus; she is the namesake of the Greek city of Thebes.
- Io Galileo discovered lo, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, in 1610. Simon Marius' claim to discovery of the Jovian satellites shortly before Galileo was not accepted. Galileo suggested that the four be known as "Medicea Sidera" to honor his patron, but the name was not accepted by other astronomers. Instead, they chose names given the four satellites by Marius in 1613; the names were of four of Jupiter's illicit loves. (Galileo refused to accept Marius' names; instead he identified the moons by Roman numerals, a secondary designation system that has been adopted for all satellite systems to the present.) lo, the daughter of Inachus, was changed by Jupiter into a cow to protect her from Hera's jealous wrath, but Hera recognized lo and sent a gadfly to torment her. lo, maddened by the fly, wandered throughout the Mediterranean region.
- Europa Beautiful daughter of Agenor, king of Tyre, she was seduced by Jupiter, who had assumed the shape of a white bull. When Europa climbed on his back he swam with her to Crete, where she bore several children, including Minos.
- Ganymede Beautiful young boy who was carried to Olympus by Jupiter disguised as an eagle. Ganymede then became the cupbearer of the Olympian gods.
- Callisto Beautiful daughter of Lycaon, she was seduced by Jupiter, who changed her into a bear to protect her from Hera's jealousy.
- Leda Seduced by Zeus in the form of a swan, she was the mother of Pollux and Helen.
- Elara A paramour of Zeus; mother of the giant Tityus.
- Ananke Moira, daughter of Zeus and Themis, as the goddess of necessity.
- Carme A nymph and attendant of Artemis; mother, by Zeus, of Britomartis.
- Pasiphae Wife of Minos; mother of the Minotaur.
- Sinope Daughter of the river god Asopus and Merope; she was abducted by Apollo.
SATURN Roman name for the Greek Cronos, father of Zeus/Jupiter. Other civilizations have given other names to Saturn, which is the farthest planet from Earth that can be observed by the naked human eye. Most of its satellites were named for Titans who, according to Greek mythology, were brothers and sisters of Saturn.
- Pan Son of Hermes and Dryope; half human, half goat god of pastoralism.
- Atlas A Titan; he held the heavens on his shoulders.
- Prometheus Brother of Atlas and Epimetheus; he gave many gifts to humanity, including fire.
- Pandora Made of clay by Hephaestus at the request of Zeus; she married Epimetheus and opened the box that loosed a host of plagues upon humanity.
- Janus Discovered by Audouin Dollfus in 1966, this small satellite was later proven to have a twin, Epimetheus, sharing the same orbit but never actually meeting. It is named for the two-faced Roman god who could look forward and backward at the same time.
- Epimetheus Discovered by the Voyager team in 1981 and named by them for the Greek backward-looking god.
- Mimas Discovered by William Herschel in 1798 and named by his son John in the early 19th century for a Titan felled by Hephaestus (or Ares) in the war between the Titans and Olympian gods.
- Enceladus Also discovered by William Herschel in 1798 and named by his son John for the Titan Enceladus. Enceladus was crushed by Athene in the battle between the Olympian gods and the Titans; earth piled on top of him became the island of Sicily.
- Tethys Discovered in 1684 by Cassini, who wished to name it and the other three satellites that he discovered (Dione, Rhea, and lapetus) for Louis XIV. However, the names used today for these. satellites were applied in the early 19th century by John Herschel, who named them for Titans and Titanesses, brothers and sisters of Saturn. Tethys was the wife of Oceanus and mother of all rivers and Oceanids.
- Telesto One of 3,000 Oceanides, water nymphs born to Oceanus and Tethys.
- Calypso A daughter of Atlas and paramour of Odysseus.
- Dione Discovered by Cassini in 1684. Dione was the sister of Cronos and mother (by Zeus) of Aphrodite.
- Rhea Discovered by Cassini in 1672 and named for another of Cronos1 sisters, Rhea was also his wife. Her youngest son was Zeus.
- Titan Discovered and named in 1665 by Huygens, who first called it "Luna Saturni."
- Hyperion Discovered by C. and G.P. Bond and by William Lassell on the same night in 1848; named by Lassell for one of the Titans.
- Iapetus Discovered by Cassini in 1671 and named by John Herschel for one of the Titans.
URANUS Uranus was discovered by William Herschel in 1781. Several astronomers, including Flamsteed and Le Monnier, had observed it earlier but had recorded it as a fixed star. Herschel tried unsuccessfully to name his discovery "Georgian Sidus" after George III; the planet was named by Johann Bode in 1781 for the father of Saturn.
- Cordelia Daughter of Lear in Shakespeare's "King Lear."
- Ophelia Daughter of Polonius, fiancée of Hamlet in Shakespeare's "Hamlet, Prince of Denmark."
- Bianca Daughter of Baptista, sister of Kate in Shakespeare's "Taming of the Shrew."
- Cressida Title character in Shakespeare's "Troilus and Cressida."
- Desdemona Wife of Othello in Shakespeare's "Othello, the Moor of Venice."
- Juliet Heroine of Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet."
- Portia Wife of Brutus in Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar."
- Rosalind Daughter of the banished duke in Shakespeare's "As You Like It."
- Belinda Character in Pope's "Rape of the Lock."
- Puck Mischievous spirit in Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream,"
- Miranda Discovered and named by G.P. Kuiper in 1948 for the heroine of Shakespeare's "The Tempest."
- Ariel Discovered by William Lassell in 1851; named by John Herschel for the benevolent spirit in Shakespeare's "The Tempest."
- Umbriel Discovered by William Lassell in 1851, Umbriel was named by John Herschel for a malevolent spirit in Pope's "Rape of the Lock."
- Titania Discovered by William Herschel in 1787; named by his son John in early 19th century for the queen of the fairies in Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream."
- Oberon Discovered by William Herschel in 1787; named by his son John in early 19th century for the king of the fairies in Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream."
NEPTUNE Neptune was actually "observed" as early as 1690 by John Flamsteed, who thought it was a fixed star. It was "predicted" by John Couch Adams and Urbain Le Verrier who, independently, were able to account for the irregularities in the motion of Uranus by correctly predicting the orbital elements of a trans-Uranian body. Using the predicted parameters of these two men, Johann Galle observed the planet in 1846. Galle wanted to name the planet for Le Verrier, but that was not acceptable to the international astronomical community.
- Naiad The name of a group of Greek water nymphs who were guardians of lakes, fountains, springs, and rivers.
- Thalassa Greek sea goddess; mother of Aphrodite in some legends; others say she bore the Telchines.
- Despina Daughter of Poseidon (Neptune) and Demeter.
- Galatea One of the Nereids, attendants of Poseidon.
- Larissa A lover of Poseidon.
- Proteus Greek sea god, son of Oceanus and Tethys.
- Triton Discovered in 1847 by William Lassell, Triton is named for the sea-god son of Poseidon (Neptune) and Amphitrite. The first suggestion of the name Triton has been attributed to the French astronomer Camille Flammarion.
- Nereid Discovered by G. P. Kuiper at the McDonald Observatory in 1949. The Nereids were the 50 daughters of Nereus and Doris and were attendants of Neptune.
- * U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1995 0 - 397-840