Collated List Text
LUNAR NOMENCLATURE COMMITTEE
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF ACADEMIES
COLLATED LIST OF LUNAR FORMATIONS
NAMED OR LETTERED IN THE MAPS OF NEISON, SCHMIDT, AND MÄDLER
COMPILED AND ANNOTATED FOR THE COMMITTEE
MARY A. BLAGG
UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE LATE
S. A. SAUNDER
PRINTED FOR THE COMMITTEE
MESSRS NEILL & CO., LTD., EDINBURGH
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION (BY PROFESSOR H. H. TURNER, F.R.S.) . v
GENERAL EXPLANATION . vii
COLLATED LIST. ........ 1
NOTES ... - 169
INDEX OF NAMES 179
In December 1905 the late Mr S. A. Saunder drew attention to the present very unsatisfactory state of Lunar Nomenclature (Monthly Notices R.A.S., lxvi. p. 41), concluding that
- "If a remedy is to be found which will meet with universal assent and nothing short of this would be a remedy at all it is obvious that it must be the work of an international committee " (loc. cit., p. 44).
His representations, supported first by the Council of the Royal Astronomical Society, and next by that of the Royal Society, reached the International Association of Academies at its Vienna meeting in 1907, when a Committee on Lunar Nomenclature was appointed by the Association, consisting of MM. Loewy (Chairman), Franz, Newcomb, Saunder, Weiss, and Turner (Secretary). The name of W. H. Pickering was subsequently added, and later, on the death of the Chairman, the names of MM. Bail) and and Puiseux. The Committee has further lost Newcomb, Saunder, and Franz.
Before his death M. Loewy had, after some preliminary discussion, asked MM. Franz and Saunder to undertake the preparation of an accurate map of the Moon in mean libration. Franz undertook the outer portions : he set to work on new measures required for the fundamental points, and completed this work, which was in the press at the time of his death. It has since been published under the title Die Randlandschaften des Mondes (Franz, Ehrhardt Karras, Halle a S., 1913). The drawing of the map had not been commenced, but it is hoped that this work will still be undertaken in Breslau.
Saunder secured the able help of Mr W. H. Wesley for the actual drawing of the map, for which Saunder himself laid down all the fundamental points. Three of the four portions have been drawn and reproduced ; the fourth is well on the way to completion.
Meantime Saunder had also secured the devoted help of Miss M. A. Blagg in collating the list here printed of names in Beer and Madler, Schmidt, and Neison.
The severe losses sustained by the Committee have combined to leave the nominal direction of it in the hands of one who is not in any sense a selenographer. On his deathbed Saunder handed to me this collated list in MS., and I gathered that, although it was of great value and represented much careful labour, considerations of cost had deterred him up to that time from printing it. As soon as I had had time to review the situation, I realised the great advantages that would follow from printing this list ; and found further that Miss Blagg would undertake to see it through the press. She made no special conditions as to time, but I felt that such valuable help might not remain permanently available, and that it was desirable to seize the favourable
vi NEISON'S, SCHMIDT'S, AXD MADLER'S LUNAR MAPS.
moment if possible. Professor Schuster and the Astronomer Royal kindly encouraged this course. Some anxiety about the funds for printing has been dispelled by the great courtesy of the Paris Academie des Sciences. I ventured to ask M. Baillaud whether he thought it appropriate that as England and Germany had undertaken the map, France should defray the expenses of this collated list. M. Baillaud promptly laid the matter before the Secretaire perpetuel, and with M. Darboux's kindly and powerful support the request was favourably entertained. I take the opportunity of tendering the grateful thanks of the Committee for this piece of international and inter-academic courtesy.
The list is throughout the work of Miss Blagg. Of her great care and thoroughness I had often heard Saunder speak, and I have had some opportunity of appreciating them at first hand during the passing of these sheets through the press.
The list will in the first instance be used by the Committee (and others whose help they may be fortunate enough to obtain) in adopting names for the formations here tabulated. For this purpose wide margins have been provided. The project of keeping the type standing until the adopted name could be added in print was rejected, after consideration, on the score of expense. It seems better to contemplate the subsequent printing of a new list giving the adopted name corresponding to each number. These numbers will probably also be entered on copies of the map, but this procedure is not yet quite settled.
H. H. TURNER,
Chairman of the Lunar Nomenclature
Committee from 1910.
UNIVERSITY OBSERVATORY, OXFORD,
I. Name-Prefixes. In deciding what name should be prefixed to each letter in this list, my aim has been, in the first place, to follow any indication, direct or indirect, given in the different texts. When no such indication could be found, I have been guided mainly, in Madler's case by the position of the letter (see page 28, Der Mond), and in Schmidt's and Neison's cases by their clear intention of preserving in the main Madler's notation. In the many cases in which these considerations were inapplicable or insufficient, I have tried to choose the name-prefix which would be most likely to be selected by anyone using the maps. Where there appeared to be much doubt on this point. I have' given an alternative prefix, placed a query mark after the prefix, or appended a note. A query mark before the prefix implies doubt as to the identity of the objects in the different maps.
II. Schmidt's Letters. Schmidt does not appear to attach much importance to the name-prefix, and sometimes himself uses two different ones for the same object. He also occasionally uses two different letters for the same peak, sometimes without calling attention to the fact. The exact position of such of his letters as appear only in his list of height-measurements, and not in the maps, must be considered more or less doubtful, particularly in those cases in which his descriptions of their positions seem to be inconsistent. He expresses himself as doubtful in regard to the position of some of them himself. I have interpolated some of these letters, instead of giving them a separate number. They may sometimes be aliases for some other letter in the list.
III. Schmidt's Rills. Schmidt did not, I think, intend his rills, as a rule, to be named in this way, but simply marked most of them "r" to call attention to them. I have, however, generally put them in the list, using as a prefix the name of the nearest named formation, for the sake of convenience.
IV. Identity of Objects. When names or letters in the different maps are given to objects which clearly represent the same formation, I have entered them as identical, although the Lat. and Long, (and also the appearance) of the object may sometimes differ considerably in the different maps, especially near the limb.
V. Form of Letters. The Roman letters on Beer and Madler's, and on Neison's maps, are in " printing " form ; those on Schmidt's maps in " writing " form. This difference is indicated in the list in the case of Schmidt's small letters by printing them in italics. No difference has been made in the capitals. The small " a " and capital " E " in Schmidt's maps often look very like the Greek "a " and "e," and there is some danger of mistaking them for each other.
viii NEISON'S, SCHMIDT'S, AND MADLER'S LUNAR MAPS.
VI. " Not Named." Objects entered in the list as " not named " are sometimes not even shown at all in the map in question. It would have involved much extra expenditure of time and trouble to note this in each case, as it is often very difficult to say whether an object is shown or not. Sometimes a mountain in one map is a crater in another ; sometimes a rill becomes a mountain chain ; sometimes there is a vague mark which may represent the object, or may not ; sometimes a similar object appears a few degrees away.
VII. Position of Objects. The descriptions of position are merely rough indications, sufficient to identify the object in maps in which the letter is given. " N.E. " means " between North and East," " S.W." " between South and West," and so on.
VIII. Proper Names. Familiar geographical names (such as " Alps ") are entered in the list in the same form in each column, in order to avoid any appearance of disagreement where none exists, although Madler and Schmidt of course write such names in German, and Neison in English. As the list is written in English, I have given them in the English form. But, in the case of names of persons, and classical geographical names, differences in form are not due to difference of language, but (presumably) to difference of opinion on the part of the authors. I have therefore aimed at giving these different forms exactly as they occur, without altering or modernising the spelling, except that in a few classical names " ae " has been printed as a diphthong, although Madler and Schmidt always separate these letters.
M. A. B.
N.B. - The sign " = " connecting two letters or names in the same column means that both are used impartially by the author in question for the same object. The word " or " used in the same way generally implies a doubt as to the form of a letter in the map, or else as to which of two appellations is really intended by the author. But, in a few cases, " or " has been used instead of " = " with the meaning explained above.
COLLATED LIST OF NAMED AND LETTERED FORMATIONS
NEISON'S, SCHMIDT'S, AND MADLER'S LUNAR MAPS.
Craters and rings ....... symbol = O
Mountains and plateaux ...... = A
"Rills" = -
Valleys and gaps = =
"Seas," etc .. = +
References are to pages in Schmidt and Neison ; to numbered sections in Madler.
Larger figures are used for named formations.
Special notes will be found relating to those entries which have an asterisk (*) against them.
The following thumbnails link to copies of pages 1 and 2 from the catalog following the introductory text reproduced above.
[the original index is printed in three columns on pages 179-182]
A vertical line before two names indicates that the same name has been given to two formations by
different authorities. An asterisk indicates that two names have been given to the same formation.
- [these notations have been omitted in the machine-readable transcription provided below]
||Number in list|
|Agarum, Pr. = Cyrillus, Cape (Sch.)
|Agassiz, Cape (Sch. )
|Argaeus, Mt. (N.) = Chamisso, Cape (Sch.)
|Argelander (Sch.) = Janssen (N.)
|Auzout or Azout
|Baco or Bacon
|Barth (Sch.) = Grove (N.)
|Beer (N.) = Hamilton (Sch.)
|Beer (Sch.) = Rosse (N.)
|Bond, G. P.
|Bond, W. C.
||4540 or 4544|
|Bunsen (Sch.) = Newcomb (N.)
|Burg or Bürg
|Cassini, J. J. (N.)
|Cayley (N.) = De Morgan (Sch.)
|Chamisso, Cape (Sch.) = Mt. Argus (N.)
|Chevallier (N.) = Volta (Sch.)
|Chladni (Sch.) 865
|Colombo or Columbus
|Cyrillus, Cape (Sch.) = Pr. Agarum
|Daniell (N.) = Hencke (Sch.)
|De Gasparis (Sch.)
|De la Rue (N.) nearly = Epicurius (Sch.)
|De Morgan (N.)
|De Morgan (Sch.) = Cayley (N.) .
|De Vico (N.)
|Deville, Pr. (Sch.)
|Doerlel Mts (N.) = Leibnitz Mts. (M.)
|Epicurius (Sch. ) nearly = De la Rue (N.)
|Eudoxus or Eudoxes
|Faraday, Cape (Sch.)
|Firmicus or Firminicus
|Fracastorius or Fracastor
|Fraunhofer or Frauenhofer
|Fresnel, Cape (Sch.) .
|Galileo or Galilai
|Grove or Groves (N.) = Barth (Sch.) .
|Gruithuisen (N. )
|Guttemberg or Gutemberg
|Hamilton (Sch. ) = Beer (N.)
|Harbinger Mts. (N.)
|Hase or Haze
|Hekataus (see Hecatäus)
|Hencke (Sch.) = Daniell (N.)
|Herschel, J. F. W.
|Hevel or Hevelius
|Hooke or Hook
|Horrocks or Horrox
|Hyginus or Higinus
|Janssen (N.) = Argelander (Sch.) .
|Janssen (Sch. )
|Kane (Sch. )
|Kastner (M. and N.)
|Kästner (Sch.) = M. Smythii (N.)
|Kinau (N. )
|Krafft or Kraft
|Kunowsky (N. )
|Lacaille or La Caille
|Leibnitz Mts. (M.) = Doerfels (N.)
|Leibnitz Mts. (N.)? = Doerfels (M.)
|Lemonnier or Le Monnier
|Leverrier(Sch.)= Miller (N.)
|Licetus (M. and N.)
|Lubiniezky or Lubienietzky
|Macrobius or Macroibus
|Maupertius or Maupertuis
|Miller (N.) = Leverrier (Sch.)
|Mortis, L. .
|Mosting (M. and N.) = Moestlin(Sch.)
|Neumayer (Sch )
|Newcomb (N. ) = Bunsen (Sch.)
|Nicollet (N. )
||4541 or 4542|
|Plutarch (M. and N.) = Timoleon (Sch. )
|Plutarch (Sch. ) = Seneca (N.)
|Protagoras (Sch )
|Purbach or Purbachius
|Riphaen Mts. or Riphaeus
|Rosse(N.) = Beer (Sch.)
|Rümker (Sch )
|Schuhmacher or Schumacher
|Schwabe (Sch. )
|Seneca (M. and N.) = Plutarch (Sch.)
|Seneca (Sch. )
|Smythii,M. (N.) = Kastner (Sch.)
|Steinheil (M. and N.)
|Steinheil (Sch.) .
|Stöfler or Stoflerus
|Tannerus (N. )
|Teneriffe Mts. (N.)
|Thales (M. and N.)
|Theon, jun. (M. and N.) = Theon, sen. (Sch.)
|Theon, sen. (M. and N.) = Theon, jun. (Sch.)
|Timoleon (Sch. ) = Plutarch (M. and N.)
|Vasco de Gama
|Volta (Sch.) = Chevallier(N.)
|Zeno (Sch. )
||353 or 354|
|Zollner (Sch. )
(text at end of index)
Names stated by Schmidt to have been given in England, but not used in his map or Neison's.
Coxwell Mts., Lat. 12°, Long. 48°.
Glaisher ? = 200.
Gwilt = 543 and 544.
Gwilt (J.) = 1064.
Lavinium Pr. = 100.
Mitchell, Miss = 721.
Olivium Pr. =99.
Pollek, F. ; Lat. -55°.7, Long. 0°.5 ? = 3387.
Sheepshanks = 698.
Terra Photographica = Highland between Zach and Clavius.
Ward = 985.
Percy Mts. = 2390, etc.
Well-known names not used by any of the three.
Flammarion = 2950.
Schröter's Valley, N. of Herodotus.
Straight Wall = 3076.
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