|Lat: 7.2°N, Long: 120.7°W, Diam: 123 km, Depth: km, Rükl: (farside)|
left:'''Lunar Orbiter V, right: LRO-WAC, crater overrun by Orientale ejecta, also numerous secondaries strewn in the field
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Albert Abraham Michelson (December 19, 1852 - May 9, 1931) was a Prussian-born American physicist known for his work on the measurement of the speed of light and especially for the Michelson-Morley experiment. In 1907 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics. He became the first American to receive the Nobel Prize in sciences. In 1887 he collaborated with colleague Edward Williams Morley in the Michelson-Morley experiment. Their experiment for the expected motion of the Earth relative to the aether, the hypothetical medium in which light was supposed to travel, resulted in a null result. Though it may appear that Albert Einstein did not know of the work (according to his 1905 paper), it greatly assisted the acceptance of the theory of relativity. In 1920-21 Michelson and Francis G. Pease famously became the first people to measure the diameter of a star other than our Sun. They used an astronomical interferometer at the Mount Wilson Observatory to measure the diameter of the super-giant star Betelgeuse. A periscope arrangement was used to obtain a densified pupil in the interferometer, a method later investigated in detail by Labeyrie for use in with "Hypertelescopes". The measurement of stellar diameters and the separations of binary stars took up an increasing amount of Michelson's life after this.
- About the Michelson-Morley experiment, see: Mysterious Universe, a handbook of astronomical anomalies (William R. Corliss, The Sourcebook Project, 1979), COSMOS (Carl Sagan, 1980).
A. A. Michelson in the Sourcebook Project (William R. Corliss)
- In Mysterious Universe, a handbook of astronomical anomalies (1979) :
- Page 691: The Velocity of Light (Science, 1927).
Note: the amount of persons called Michelson (in Mysterious Universe) is not small. Here's a list of page numbers in which the name Michelson is mentioned:
Pages 661, 664, 665, 669, 670, 692 (it could be that all of these show the only one A. A. Michelson).
But... there's also:
N. N. Michelson, and... the Phase Anomaly or Dichotomy of Venus
There must have been (or there still is) a certain N. N. Michelson, who, together with V. N. Petrov, investigated certain phase anomalies of planet Venus, and wrote an article about this subject for Sky and Telescope of August 1958.
Source: Mysterious Universe, a handbook of astronomical anomalies (William R. Corliss, The Sourcebook Project, 1979) :
- Page 104: The Phase Anomaly of Venus (Brian Warner, Journal of the British Astronomical Association, 1963).
- Page 106: On the Variation of the Phase of Venus from Theory (Minick Rushton, Strolling Astronomer, 1961).