Named Lunar Formations Text
UNION ASTRONOMIQUE INTERNATIONALE
(International Astronomical Union)
NAMED LUNAR FORMATIONS
MARY A. BLAGG
Drawn up by them for Commission 17 and
approved at the Meeting of the Union held
at Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1932.
Made and Printed by Replika Process
in Great Britain by
PERCY LUND, HUMPHRIES & CO. LTD.
12 BEDFORD SQUARE
The desirability of uniformity in the nomenclature of lunar formations was brought before the Royal Astronomical Society by Mr. S.A. Saunder so long ago as 1905. Thereupon Prof. Turner brought up the matter before the Royal ociety,and, as representing that body, before the International Association of Academies which met at Vienna in 1907. A Committee was appointed consisting of MM. Loewy (Chairman), Franz, Newcomb, Saunder, Weiss and Turner (Secretary), The name of Prof. W.H.Pickering was added - and after the death of M. Loewy, MM. Baillaud and Puiseux were added to the Committee. Before his death, Saunder had happily secured the co-operation of Miss M.A.Blagg in collating the names given to different formations in the maps of Beer and Madler, Schmidt and Nelson, This was admirably carried out by Miss Blagg and a collated list was published in 1913 with the aid of a grant from the Academic des Sciences.
When the International Astronomical Union was constituted the question of Lunar Nomenclature was referred to Commission 17 consisting of Prof. Turner (President), Miss Blagg, MM. G. Bigourdan, W.H.Pickering and P.Puiseux. The Commission recommended that;-
- (1) The names in the collated list to be taken when the three authorities agree or from any one of them when the others give no name,
- (2) When different names are given, each case to be decided on its merits.
- (3) Names recently given and suggested names to be sparingly adopted.*
- * Transactions of International Astronomical Union Vol. II p. 54.
At the Leiden meeting in 1928, lists of 412 names where Mädler, Schmidt and Neison agree, and of 95 names generally accepted, though not used by all three, were submitted by Miss Blagg and approved by the Commission. Lists of 86 doubtful or inconspicuous objects and of 31 formations where names clash, were left over for consideration. Also lists of names proposed by Krieger, Müller, Wilkins and Lamèch, were prepared by Dr. Müller - a most useful supplement to the "Collated List." At this meeting, Prof. E.W. Brown was elected as President of the Commission and a sub-Committee consisting of Miss Blagg and Dr. Müller was appointed to prepare a definitive list of names for submission at the next meeting.
At Dr. Müller's suggestion many small, formations measured by Franz and Saunder were added to the "Collated List." These served the purpose of accurately defining the boundaries of larger formations. A number of indefinite objects were omitted. As regards the names given by later selenographers, those suggested by Fauth, Krieger, Müller, have been generally adopted, those by Lamèch more, sparingly,but his suggestions are given in the notes. Wilkins' names in his earlier map (1924) were accepted but not the new ones in his 500-in. map.
The proposals of the sub-Committee were adopted by Commission 17 at Cambridge (Mass.) in 1932. At the General Assembly provision was made for the publication of this definitive list of adopted names.
These names should be strictly adhered to by selenographers. Those who may wish to add new names should ascertain from the list whether the proposed names have been already given to other formations. Also no new name should be given to a formation already named in the list.
Otherwise new confusions will arise similar to those which have with difficulty been cleared away.
The list has been reproduced by a photographic process, and the Commission is indebted to the Astronomer Royal for the preparation of the type-script at the Royal Observatory.
The Commission is deeply grateful to Miss Blagg, and Dr. Müller for the large amount of time and thought they have given to this work. Constant correspondence on all points of difficulty has been made by the two compilers, and after interchange of tracings, arguments and measurements, an agreed decision has been reached. They have, as far as possible, kept in touch with other selenographers. As Chairman of the Commission, I have supported M. Lamèch's suggestion that the names of Blagg and Müller should be given to two lunar formations and over-ruled the objections made by Miss Blagg and Dr. Müller. I am confident the Commission will approve of my action.
At the same time our indebtedness to former members of the Commission should not be overlooked. In particular, Saunder and Turner initiated this work and it was largely through their indefatigable zeal and perseverance that it has been carried through.
Explanation of Columns.
Col. I gives the number of the object in the Collated List. Gaps in the numbering indicate the rejection of indefinite or doubtful objects. Many rills are thus omitted. Where a formation not in that List is here included, a number followed by a small Roman letter is interpolated. Thus newly added formations are distinguished from the old. The introduction of a large number of the small formations measured by Saunder and Franz (about 80%) is considered to be justified by their importance as fixed points in the lunar disc. None are included which are not clearly visible in good photographs, or which are lees in apparent diameter than 1/500 of the semi-diameter of the Moon's disc. We have also not included such of Franz's measured points as are entirely beyond the limb in mean libration. Where there were a number of measured objects near together we have given a few of the more conspicuous ones only. From Goodacre's newly lettered objects we have selected such as appeared clearly defined in photographs.
Col. II gives the chosen designation. In deciding on it we have tried to act in general accordance with the proposals approved by the Commission, on the following principles.
- (1) When a formation has a proper name already generally accepted this name is retained. Some other names are added which have been adopted or proposed "by later selenographers; a few names of astronomers now living being included in appreciation of their work in connection with the Moon. Other proposed names, though not adopted, are mentioned in notes.
- (2) In regard to names, letters or prefixes which
- clash, we have in the main chosen the earlier given name or letter, adopting the order as follows:- Mädler, Nelson, Schmidt, Lohrmann, Gaudibert, Elger, Fauth, Pickering, Franz, Goodacre, Krieger-König, Debes, Wilkins, Andel, Lamèch and we have chosen that prefix which appeared the most reasonable. The last point is important in view of the possible future delimitation of areas. Mountain names, such as "Alps", are here given in English, but would be used by each astronomer in his own language.
- (3) In accordance with the Report accepted at Leiden, eminences are given small Greek letters only, and, depressions (craters, valleys etc.) capital Roman letters only. To avoid duplication of letters under any individually named formation, we have (a) when it could, reasonably be done, changed the prefix-name for one of the duplicated letters, or (b) when that could not reasonably be done, changed one of the letters themselves. Such changes are noted. When a large number of new letters come under any named formation, the alphabetical order of our new letters usually follows the plan of Saunder's catalogue. In a few cases two letters are used (as AA, AB) when the. new crater is a small one adjacent to the larger one bearing the first bf the two letters. It is suggested that selenographers who wish to distinguish some other small object near to a lettered one should, act similarly, out use a small Roman letter (as Aa) to show that the object is not in this List. Rills have Roman numbers, followed by r, as Ir, IIr.
- (4) The prefixes are given in abbreviated form of 2 to 6 letters using the first 2 or 3 letters of the name, followed if needful by later ones, not always those next
- succeeding, in such a way as to suggest the particular name rather than any other; e.g. Anxan = Anaximander; Anxes = Anaximenes; Anxor = Anaxagoras. The use of these abbreviations is optional, but they might form a basis if it should be desired to adopt a system of authorised abbreviations.
Col III gives the position of the formation;- in the majority of cases by the co-ordinates ⁵ [Xi] and ⁵ [Eta], in agreement with the Sannder and Franz measures and with the accompanying maps. The unit is *00lr = 1000th. of the semi-diameter of the Moon's disc in mean libration. Occasionally, for objects not measured by Franz or Saunder we have adopted König's measures. These have not been published and were not available when the maps were drawn, but they are found to agree remarkably well with our positions on the whole. In cases where the co-ordinates are not given, the position is indicated by reference to some other formation. (These indications are independent of those in the Collated List, which in a few cases are in error.) Abbreviations are:-
- N, NW etc. for points of the compass; f = far, n = near, o or out = outer, fr = from, w = wall, ct = centre, v = very. Thus SWw 1850 means South-West wall of number 1850. If no number is mentioned the formation prefixed is to be understood. Co-ordinates refer to the apparent central point, unless otherwise stated.
Col. IV supplies further aid to identification by giving the character of the formations. These are indicated by the following symbols :-
(explanatory graphic interpolated from page 1 of the Catalog)
- (a) Valleys
- (b) Rills, Clefts, Cracks, Riverbeds
- Rillen, Schluchten
- Solchi, Speccaturi
- (The approximate direction is indicated)
- (c) Single hills, Peaks
- Collines, Pics
- Hügel, Beulen, Spitzen, Einzelberge
- (d) Ridges, Chains, Plateaux
- Ridements, Chatnes, Plateaux
- Rücken, Ketten, Hochebenen
- Giogaie, Catene, Altipiani
- (e) Maria and similar features
- Mers etc.
- Maria etc.
- Mari etc.
- (f) Confluent twin craters
- Crateres jumeaux
- Zwillings Krater - nicht volständig von einander getrennt
- Crateri Gemelli
- (g) Irregular and indistinctly walled plains
- Plaines cratèriformes irrégulières et mal définies
- Wallebenen auch unregelmässige und weniger bestimmt begrenzte Einsenkungen, Kaare
- (h) Formations not fully enclosed, bays or gulfs
- Baies, Golfes
- Sinbuchtungen, Buchten, Busen
- Baie, Golfi
- (i) Walled Craters, Holes, Ring plains
- Cratères et orifices entourés de murs et nettement définis
- Gut umwallte eigentliche Krater, Ringgebirge and Löcher
- Crateri, Cerchi
- For the last class the largest apparent diameter is also given approximately the unit being *001r. Although close precision is not practicable these figures are sufficient guide to prevent mistakes in identification of formations with nearly the same co-ordinates.
Col. V No. in Saunder's Catalogue.
Col. VI No. in Franz's Catalogue.
Col. VII gives as 'Authority' the first giver or proposer of the name or letter. When a named object has previously been known by a letter, that letter and its author are also noted. Mädler's designations were usually followed by Neison, and largely also by Schmidt and by later writers. Goodacre's new letters are in most cases used also by Wilkins. Abbreviations are: An = Andel; De = Debes; Fa = Fauth; Fr or Frz = Franz; Gau = Gaudibert; G or Goo = Goodacre; Hev = Hevelius; Kö = König, Kr = Krieger; Lam Lamèch; Lo = Lohrmann; M or Mä = Mädler; Mü = Müller; N = Neison; Ric = Riccioli; Sa = Saunder; S or Sch = Schmidt; Schr = Schröter.; Wi = Wilkins; C.L. = Collated List; Com. = Commission.
- 267 Insert Sa No. 2782
- 354 For Fr(l) read Fr(i)
- 1363 For -130 read -180
- 1457 For +254 read +264
- 1479 For -240 +267 read -268 +244
- 1995a For -92 read -82
- 2050 For -859 -412 read -856 -408
- 2055 For NW read SW
- 2055 / 2056 For Byr. read Dar.
- 2591 For S(M,C) read S;M(C)
- 3007 Add note: Not exactly the e of M and S.
- 4526a For Fr(M) read Fr(M.Austr.r)
INDEX OF PROPER NAMES.
[The original index is printed in three columns over four pages. The links under "No." are to external scanned copies of the relevant catalog pages in TIFF format. In browsers such as Mozilla/Firefox you can set the application used to open them under "Tools" -- some applications work better than others. The links under "Map" are to local Wiki pages with scans of the original reference maps, but only 1-3 and 14 are currently on-lin.]