IAU Transactions XIIIA

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(the following is excerpted from the book published by D. Reidel, 1967)


Edited by
General Secretary of the Union

from p. 341


PRÉSIDENT: Dr D. H. Menzel, Harvard College Observatory and Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass. 02138, U.S.A.
VICE-PRESIDENTS : Dr A. Dollfus, Dr K. Koziel.
COMITE D'ORGANISATION: D. Martynov, M. G. J. Minnaert.
MEMBRES: Arthur, Ashbrook, Barabashov, Boneff, Botelheiro, Drofa, Dzapiashvili, Eckert, Ezersky, Fielder, Focas, Gold, Günther, Guth, Habibulin, Hall (R. G.), Heyden, Hirose, Hopmann, Ingrao, Jeffreys, Kopal, Kuiper, Levin, Liddel, Link, Markowitz, Murray, Nefediev, Nicholson, O'Keefe, Pettengill, Potter, Rösch, Sadler (F. M. McBain), Sagan, Sato, Schrutka-Rechtenstamm, Sharonov, Shoemaker, Sinton, Sytinskaya, Troitsky, Ueta, Urey, Watts, Weimer, Whipple, Whitaker, Yakovkin (A. A.).

Stimulated by the successful missions of several lunar probes, the field of lunar research has developed tremendously since the formation of Commission 17 at the Hamburg Meeting of the IAU. So many papers have appeared that it becomes difficult to organize and impossible in any reasonable time to digest the literature, particularly with the variety of new techniques coming into use. By way of partial compensation we have added to the references identifying numbers (when available) by which an abstract may be found in Physics Abstracts (P) and/or one of the NASA Abstract publications (A, N). We also call attention to the NASA continuing bibliography (S). Abstracts for many earlier publications can be found in (U).

We are indebted to Dr E. L. Ruskol for a report on the study of the Moon in the U.S.S.R. from which we insert paragraphs in the appropriate sections below.


In April 1965, Commission 17 of the IAU joined with NASA to sponsor a symposium on the nature of the lunar surface (8). In May 1966, COSPAR sponsored a symposium in Vienna on the Moon and planets (14). A number of other books have appeared that deal in whole (1. 3, 4, 5, 7, 10) or in part (2, 9, 11) with a variety of problems of lunar research. Many of the articles appearing in the proceedings of the conferences (3, 8, 9) are referenced individually in the appropriate section below. Kopal (6) has published an atlas of lunar photographs from plates taken at the Pic du Midi Observatory.

Scientists of the Central Astronomical Observatory of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian SSR compiled two books (12, 13) on the shape and motion of the Moon, following an all-Union conference on this topic in Kiev in May 1964.


a. Hard Landings

The greatest achievement in lunar research has unquestionably been the successful missions of several Moon probes launched by the United States of America and by the Soviet Union. A preliminary report on the first successful hard-landing probe, Ranger VII on 31 July 1964, was presented at the Hamburg meetings. The data secured by Ranger V II have been published in a series of three photographic atlases (1) and a volume of interpretive analysis (2). The area selected for impact was a relatively smooth mare, known to have several ray systems and ridges and a relatively high crater density, a region since named Mare Cognitum. `Craters are the dominant topographic features of the mare surface at all scales down to the smallest...
(following sections omitted)

from pp. 344-345


Arthur and Kuiper report completion of the scheme of lunar nomenclature for the Moon's visible hemisphere, which was proposed and approved by the IAU at its 1964 Hamburg meeting. This nomenclature is embodied in the catalog, The System of Lunar Craters (1), which is in four parts and gives positions and dimensions for 17 000 craters, and in a two color map in four sheets (2). The compilation of this nomenclature has been a task of some magnitude, and it is hoped that the work will be rewarded by wide acceptance of the new scheme.

Other cartographic work by scientists of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory include selenodetic measures on three Yerkes photographs by Arthur (6, 112, 13), drawings of areas of the northwest (19) and southeast (20) lunar limbs by Herring. Strom (32) has mapped in detail lineaments within 60° of the center of the Moon's face, and delineated four global lineament systems and radial systems associated with four circular maria.

Since the Hamburg meetings, scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey have accelerated their program of geologically mapping the Moon by telescopic means. Thirty-five maps at a scale of 1:1 000 000 are now published (3) or available in preliminary form (A 7a) out of a planned 44 which will cover most of the earthside hemisphere. Aspects of the geology of selected regions have been discussed (26, 27, 30, 34, 37, 38, 39). The geological mapping aims to express the structure, history, and formative processes of near-surface materials, and maps class into units those materials believed to have formed simultaneously in about the same way. The units appear in order of relative age. In addition the scientists have employed photographs taken by Ranger VIII for geologic (24, 33, Hc 13) and topographic (2g) mapping of a region of Mare Tranquillitatis; and by Ranger IX for the floor of Alphonsus (Hb 8, 13). See also refs. (Ha 11, 12, 115, I 49)

The U.S. Air Force, Aeronautical Chart and Information Center has used the Ranger photographs to refine its shaded relief maps of the Moon (4). Their previous maps at a scale of 1 : 1 000 000 were the largest-scale maps previously available for the impact areas of the Rangers. Their new series (4) possesses scales of 1 : 500 000, 1 : 1 00 000, 1 : 10 000, and 1 :1000. These maps ‘provide in a condensed, but qualitative, form much of the new topographic data acquired by the Ranger Block III missions' (Ba 5). References (15, 17, 23) discuss various aspects of the ACIC mapping program.

A number of papers discuss various procedures and problems in lunar cartography and selenodesy (5, 7-11, 14, 18, 21, 22, 31, 35, 36). Papers (16, 28, 29) are concerned with the problem of determining elevations on the Moon. See also (Ha 5, 8).

Lisina and Shevchenko developed van Diggelen's photometric method for the study of relief and applied it to maria regions (40) and the surroundings of the crater Kepler (41). Markov (42) found the diameter-depth relation : log D= 1.0662 log d + 0.6200, for craters seen on Ranger VII photographs. Mukhamedzhanov and Stanjukovich (43) studied the distribution of primary and secondary ejecta of the crater-forming impact which can explain the double rims of certain craters.

Towards an investigation of the geometrical shape of the Moon, Gavrilov (44) developed a method of photography of the Moon and of compiling catalogs of selenocentric positions of details of the lunar surface. After analyzing existing catalogs and adding new measures, he constructed a net of basic points. From measures of 16 photographs of the Moon, with the Schrutka-Rechtenstamm and Baldwin Catalogs as reference, Gavrilov et al. (45) compiled a catalog of space coordinates of 160 basic points. This was extended to a similar catalog of 500 basic points (46). Gavrilov (47) has compared different systems of position.

Lunar Nomenclature

The enormous amount of new data related to the mapping of lunar craters, obtained from the space programs of the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. necessitates a complete review of the problem of nomenclature of various lunar features. Recommendations made by special committees of the National Academies of the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. furnish a starting point for consideration of the problem by the Sub-committee on Lunar Nomenclature of Commission 17 of the IAU under the chairmanship of Z. Kopal. As the result of correspondence undertaken prior to and meetings held during the General Assembly of the IAU in Prague, recommendations will be made to the General Assembly concerning nomenclature for features of the reverse side of the Moon and also of special features on the visible surface.

A poll of the membership of Commission 17, undertaken by its president, indicates that the majority favors extension of the present system of nomenclature to the reverse side of the Moon, with craters named for deceased scientists, with special attention to astronomers.

(remaining reports omitted)

from p. 357


Sources of Abstracts

P. Physics Abstracts, publ. monthly by the Institution of Electrical Engineers, London.

A. International Aerospace Abstracts, publ. semi-monthly by American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, N.Y.

N. Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports, publ. semi-monthly by NASA, Scientific and Technical Information Division, available from U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

S. Lunar Surface Studies: a Continuing Bibliography with indexes.

  • NASA-SP-7003 (01), March 1965;
  • NASA-SP-7003 (02), April 1966.

U. Bibliography of Lunar and Planetary Research, 1960-64. Ed. J. W. Salisbury. AFCRL66-52, Special Report No. 40. 524 P. (Moon, p. 257-373), January 1966.

A. Books and Conference Proceedings

1. The Lunar Surface Layer, Materials and Characteristics. Eds. J. W. Salisbury, P. E. Glaser. New York, Academic Press, 1964, 532 p. (A69-26059)
2. Physics of the Moon and Planets (Fizika Luny i Planet). Ed. I. K. Koval. Kiev, Naukova Dumka, 1964, 140 p. (A65-18967)
3. Geological Problems in Lunar Research. Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1123, p. 367-1257, 1965. (A65-34229)
4. Lunar and Planetary Surface Conditions. N. A Weil. New York, Academic Press, 1965, 222 p. (A65-26272)
5. Lunar Geology. G. Fielder. London, Lutterworth Press, 1965, 184 p. (A66-27490)
6. Photographic Atlas of the Moon. Z. Kopal. New York, Academic Press, 1965, 277 p. (A66-31747)
7. Astrogeologic Studies-Summary: Annual Progress Report, 1 July 1964-1 July 1965, 1965, 34 P. (N66-21635)
7a. Astrogeologic Studies. Part A: Lunar and Planetary Investigations, Annual Progress Report No. 6. 1 July 1964-1 July 1965, 1965, 131 p. (N66-21350)
7b. Astrogeologic Studies. Part B: Crater Investigations, Annual Progress Report, 1 July 1964 - 1 July 1965. H. G. Wilshire et al., 1965, 184 p. (N66-21584)
8. The Nature of the Lunar Surface: Proceedings of the IAU/NASA 1965 Symposium, Eds. W. N. Hess, D. H. Menzel, J. A. O'Keefe. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1966, 320 p. (A66-35437)
9. Proceedings of the Caltech-JPL Lunar and Planetary Conference. Eds. H. Brown, G. J. Stanley, D. O. Muhleman, G. Muench. 15 June 1966, 357 p. (N66-31446) (Summary by J. A. O'Keefe, Sky and Tel., 31, 10-12, 1966)
10. La Lune a l'Ere Spatiale. Ed. J. Rösch. Publ. of the Centre National d'Ėtudes Spatiales, Presses Universitaires de France, 1966, 192 p.
11. Physics of the Moon and Planets. (Fizika Luny i Planet). Kiev, Naukova Dumlca, 1966, 110 p.
12. Figure and Motion of the Moon (Figura i drizhenie Luny). Ed. A. A. Yakovlcin. Kiev, Naukova Dumka, 1965, 137 P.
13. Figure and Motion of the Moon (Figura i drizhenie Luny). Kiev, Naukova Dumka, 1967 (in press).
14. Moon and Planets. Ed. A. Dollfus. Amsterdam, North Holland Publ. Co., 1967 (in press).

B. Lunar Probes

a. Hard Landings

1. Ranger VII Photographs of the Moon. Part I: Camera A Series, Sept. 1964, 226 p., NASA-SP-61 (N64-31723); Camera B Series, Dec. 1964, 200 p., NASA-SP-62; Camera P Series, Feb. 1965, 200 p., NASA-SP-63.

(from pp. 359-360)

C. Cartography

1. The System of Lunar Craters.

  • Quadrant II Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, No. 40, D. W. G. Arthur, A. P. Agnieray, R. A. Horvath, C. A. Wood, C. R. Chapman. March 1964. (N65-18937)
  • Quadrant III Ibid., No. 50. D. W. G. Arthur, A. P. Agnieray, R. H. Pellicori, C. A. Wood, T. Weller. Feb. 1965. (A66-11465)
  • Quadrant IV. Ibid., No. 70. D. W. G. Arthur, R. H. Pellicori, C. A. Wood. May 1966. (N66-38712)

2. Lunar Designations and Positions.

  • Quadrant II. D. W. G. Arthur, A. P. Agnieray, August 1964;
  • Quadrant III. D. W. G. Arthur, A. P. Agnieray, April 1965;
  • Quadrant IV. D. W. G. Arthur, R. H. Pellicori, Sep. 1966. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson.

3. United States Geological Survey Maps of the Moon:

  • The Riphaeus Mountains region, Map I-458, R. Eggleton, 1965.
  • The Timocharis region, Map I-462, M. H. Carr, 1965.
  • The Montes Apenninus region, Map I-463, R. J. Hackman, 1966.
  • The Aristarchus region, Map I-465, H. J. Moore, 1965.
  • The Pitatus region, Map 1-485, N. J. Trask, S. R. Titley, 1966.
  • The Mare Serenitatis region, Map I-489, M. I-L Carr, 1966.
  • The Helvelius region, Map I-491, J. F. McCauley, 1967.
  • The Mare Humorum region, Map I-495, S. R. '1'itley, 1967.
  • The Julius Caesar quadrangle, Map I-510, E. C. Morris, D. E. Wilhelms, 1967.

4. Ranger Lunar Charts. United States Air Force, Aeronautical Chart and Information Center, St. Louis. Ranger VII, RLC 1-5, 1964; Ranger VIII, RLC 6-12, 1966; Ranger IX, RLC 13-17, 1966.
5. Arthur, D. W. G. The reduction of measures for position on a single lunar photograph. Comm. Lunar Planet. Lab., 4, 77, 1965. (A66-29969)
6. Arthur, D. W. G. Selenodetic measures on Yerkes lunar photograph No. 1170. Ibid., 4, 81, 1965. (A66-29970)
7. Arthur, D. W. G. The computation of selenodetic coordinates using the librations. Ibid., 4, 89, 1965. (A66-29971)
8. Arthur, D. W. G. Measures on star-trailed lunar photographs and their initial reductions. Ibid., No. 71, Jan. 1966.
9. Arthur, D. W. G. Scale transfer for lunar photographs. Ibid., No. 73, Feb. 1966.
10. Arthur, D. W. G. On the validity of selenodetic positions. Ibid., No. 74, March 1966.
11. Arthur, D. W. G. A method for the determination of the Moon's constants of rotation
from measurements on scaled and oriented lunar photographs. Ibid., No. 75, May 1966.
12. Arthur, D. W. G. Selenodetic measures on Yerkes lunar photograph No. 1269. Ibid., No. 76, July 1966.
13. Arthur, D. W. G. Selenodetic measures on Yerkes lunar photograph No. 482. Ibid., No. 77, July 1966.
14. Bird, T. H. Large-scale lunar photogrammetry. Photogrammetric Engineering, 32, 227, 1966. (A66-25601)
15. Bray, T. A., Goudas, C. L. A contour map based on the selenodetic control system of the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center of the U.S. Air Force. Boeing Math.
Note No. 457, 20 p., March 1966. (N66-31418)
16. Eckhardt, D. H. On the harmonic analysis of absolute lunar elevations. Icarus, 5, 313, 1966. (P66-28583; A66-33019)
17. Eriksen, J. G. Lunar charting. Air Univ. Rev., 16, 76, 1965. (A65-27043)
18. Goudas, C. L. The selenodetic control system of the U.S. Army Map Service. Icarus, 4, 188, 1965. (A65-26047)
19. Herring, A. K. Preliminary drawings of lunar limb areas. IV. Comm. Lunar Planet.
., 3, 13, 1965. (A66-11496)
20. Herring, A. K. Preliminary drawings of lunar limb areas. V. Comm. Lunar Planet. Lab., 3, 15, 1965. (A66-11497)
21. Hunt, M. S. Progress in selenodesy. p. 1220-35 in ref. A3. (A65-34276)
22. Kopal, Z., Rackham, T. W. Photographic resolution on the lunar surface from ground
based facilities. Icarus, 2, 329, 1963. (A64-I4463)
23. Meyer, D. L., Ruffin, B. W. Coordinates of lunar features. Icarus, 4, 513, 1965
(A66-19263; P66-13166)
24. Milton, D. J., Wilhelms, D. E. Geology from a relatively distant Ranger VIII photograph. p. 302-13 in ref. Ba5. (N66-25055)
25. Moore, H. J., Lugn, R. V. Experimental topographic map of a small area of the lunar
surface from the Ranger VIII photographs. P. 295-302 in ref. Ba5. (N66-25054)
26. Morris, E. C., Wilhelms, D. E. Preliminary geologic map of the Julius Caesar quadrangle. ref. A7, map supplement.
2'7. Pohn, H. A. The Serenitatis Bench and the bond formation. p. 9-12, ref. A7a.
28. Riesen, A. A partial explanation of the divergence between visual and photographic
measurements of relative elevations on the Moon. Arch. Sci. Switz., 17, 225, 1964.
29. Rindfleisch, T. Photometric method for lunar topography. Photogrammetric Engineering, 32, 262, 1966. (A66-25603)
30. Rowan, L. C., West, M. Preliminary albedo map of the lunar equatorial belt. p. 101-14 in ref. A7a.
31. Samaha, A. H., Kopal, Z. Lunar photography with the 74-inch reflector of the Helwan Observatory at Kottamia. Icarus, 5, 309, 1966. (A66-33018; P66-28585)
32. Strom, R. G. Analysis of lunar lineaments. I-Tectonic maps of the Moon. Comm.
Lunar Planet. Lab
., 2, 205, 1964. (A65-23264)
33. Trask, N. J. Preliminary geologic map of a small area in Mare Tranquillitatis. p. 319-26 in ref. Ba5. (N66-25057)
34. Trask, N. J. Preliminary report on the geology of the Byrgius region of the Moon. p. 3-8 in ref. A7a.
35. Triplet, J.-M. Lunar topography and cartography. L'Astronomie, 80, 183, 1966. (A66-32132)
36. Wildey, R. L. A computer program for the transformation of lunar observations from
celestial to selenographic coordinates. Icarus, 3, 136, 1964. (A64-28018)
37. Wilhelms, D. E. Fra Mauro and Cayley formations in the Mare Vaporum and Julius
Caesar regions of the Moon. p. 13-27 in ref. A7a.
38. Wilhelms, D. E., Masursky, H., Bender, A. B., Ryan, J. D. Preliminary geologic mapping of the easternmost part of the lunar equatorial belt. P. 45-54 in ref. A7a.
39. Wilhelms, D. E., Trask, N. J. Compilation of geology in the lunar equatorial belt.
p. 29-34 in ref. A7a.
40. Lisina, L. R., Shevchenko, V. V. p. 80-91 in ref. A12.
41. Lisina, L. R. p. 95-109 in ref. A11.
42. Markov, A. V. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 167, No. 1, 1966.
43. Mukhamedzhanov, A. K., Stanjukovich, K. P. Kosmicheskie Issledovania, 4, 408, 1966.
41. Gavrilov, I. V. In ref. A12.
45. Gavrilov, I. V., Duma, D. P., Kislyuk, V. S. In ref. A12.
46. Gavrilov, L V., Duma, D. P., Kislyuk, V. S. In ref. A13
47. Gavrilov, I. V. In ref. A13.